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Table 1 Co-infections (viral, bacterial, fungal; culture-confirmed) in children with severe seasonal influenza - Germany, 2005-2008 *

From: Severe influenza cases in paediatric intensive care units in Germany during the pre-pandemic seasons 2005 to 2008

Co-infection Infectious agent Diagnostics/material No. of children (%)
Viral Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) RSV-test (antigen, PCR, or immunofluorescence) 4 (20)
Bacterial - gram positive Staphylococcus aureus Pleural fluid (1), tracheal aspirate (2) 3 (15)
  Staphylococcus epidermis Blood culture 2 (10)
  Staphylococcus hominis Blood culture 1 (5)
  Streptococcus pneumoniae Liquor and brain tissue (post-mortem) 1 (5)
  Enterococcus sp. Central venous catheter/blood culture 1 (5)
Bacterial - gram negative Hafnia alvei Tracheal aspirate 1 (5)
Bacterial - mycoplasma-like Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Serology 1 (5)
Fungal Candida albicans Tube tip 1 (5)
  Aspergillus sp. Tracheal aspirate 1 (5)
  1. * Data on co-infections reported in 13 (65%) of 20 children; percentages refer to the number of all 20 patients. Multiple nominations were possible. sp: species; not further specified