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Table 4 Significant odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the associations between the influenza subtypes and the characteristics of the study patients and their households.

From: Clinical and socioeconomic impact of different types and subtypes of seasonal influenza viruses in children during influenza seasons 2007/2008 and 2008/2009

  Influenza A/H1N1 vs influenza A/H3N2 OR (95% CI) Influenza A/H1N1 vs influenza B OR (95% CI) Influenza B vs influenza A/H3N2 OR (95% CI)
Presence of fever    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.68 (0.41-0.99) 1.03 (0.66-1.79) 0.65 (0.39-0.94)
Presence of high-grade fever"    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.76 (0.55-0.97) 0.98 (0.62-1.55) 0.75 (0.53-0.96)
Upper respiratory tract infection    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 1.34 (1.10-1.81) 0.86 (0.53-1.36) 1.31 (1.08-1.79)
Lower respiratory tract infection    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.60 (0.39-0.84) 1.19 (0.68-1.91) 0.69 (0.43-0.93)
Fever without source    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.64 (0.43-0.85) 1.12 (0.66-1.93) 0.61 (0.40-0.87)
Hospitalisation    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.57 (0.37-0.82) 0.61 (0.40-0.88) 0.84 (0.53-1.36)
Duration of hospitalisation (days)    
< 7 days 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
≥7 days 0.62 (0.40-0.90) 1.11 (0.85-1.42) 0.60 (0.39-0.85)
Absences from school (days)    
< 7 days 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
≥7 days 0.64 (0.43-0.91) 0.96 (0.61-1.74) 0.62 (0.42-0.98)
Antibiotic use    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.65 (0.44-0.93) 1.14 (0.66-1.98) 0.68 (0.47-0.94)
Antipyretic use    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.69 (0.40-0.91) 0.93 (0.54-1.91) 0.67 (0.39-0.96)
Aerosol therapy    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.65 (0.43-0.88) 1.18 (0.67-1.89) 0.62 (0.36-0.93)
Steroids    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.69 (0.39-0.94) 0.93 (0.58-1.67) 0.70 (0.49-0.95)
Household diseases similar to that of the infected child    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.63 (0.41-0.92) 0.71 (0.42-0.94) 0.78 (0.50-0.98)
Additional medical visits among households    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.68 (0.40-0.94) 0.74 (0.46-0.97) 0.79 (0.55-0.99)
Household antibiotic prescriptions    
No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.65 (0.42-0.93) 0.87 (0.62-1.25) 0.91 (0.68-1.29)
Lost working days by mothers    
< 3 days 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
≥3 days 0.65 (0.34-0.89) 1.13 (0.54-1.92) 0.69 (0.38-0.96)
Lost working days by fathers    
< 3 days 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
≥3 days 0.58 (0.36-0.85) 0.87 (0.62-1.35) 0.65 (0.41-0.93)
Lost school days by siblings    
< 3 days 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
≥3 days 0.76 (0.54-0.97) 0.92 (0.70-1.38) 0.77 (0.58-0.98)
  1. Odds ratios from multivariate logistic models, including terms for age and gender.