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Table 1 Proportion of late entry into HIV care, as defined by the standard criterion, with adjusted risk ratios. Brazil (2003–2006)

From: Late entry into HIV care: lessons from Brazil, 2003 to 2006

Characteristic N % Proportion of late entry Risk ratio Adjusted risk ratio 95% confidence interval p
        Min Max  
Brazil   115,369 100 43.6 - - - - -
Geopolitical region South 22,229 19.3 40.8 1 1 - -  
North 6,270 5.4 53.4 1.31 1.33 1.29 1.37 < 0.001
Northeast 17,448 15.1 48.1 1.18 1.19 1.16 1.21 < 0.001
Central-West 7,997 6.9 47.1 1.15 1.16 1.13 1.20 < 0.001
Southeast 58,499 50.7 43.1 1.06 1.05 1.03 1.07 < 0.001
No data 2,926 2.5       
Size of municipality (number of inhabitants) ≥ 500,000 46,835 40.6 42.6 1 1 - -  
100,000-499,999 33,339 28.9 43.0 1.01* 1.04 1.02 1.06 < 0.001
< 100,000 30,429 26.4 46.3 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.10 < 0.001
No data 4,766 4.1       
HIV testing rate High 89,550 77.6 42.7 1 1 - -  
Medium 5,063 4.4 46.8 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.10 <0.001
Low 15,990 13.9 48.5 1.14 1.09 1.06 1.11 < 0.001
No data 4,766 4.1   1     
Sex Female 50,354 43.6 35.7   1 - -  
Male 64,932 56.3 49.8 1.40 1.33 1.31 1.35 < 0.001
No data 83 0.1       
Age bracket 15-29 years 36,201 31.4 30 1 1 - -  
30-59 years 76,134 66 49.5 1.65 1.60 1.58 1.63 < 0.001
≥ 60 years 3,034 2.6 59.3 1.98 1.91 1.85 1.98 < 0.001
HIV transmission category§ Heterosexual women 15,665 41.9 - 1 1 - -  
  Injection drug user 2,997 8.0 - 1.18 1.18 1.15 1.22 < 0.001
  Heterosexual men 11,467 30.7 - 1.21 1.17 1.15 1.19 < 0.001
  Blood transfusion 107 0.3 - 1.16 1.15 1.01 1.32 0.039
  Homosexual/bisexual men 7,155 19.1 - 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.07 < 0.001
  1. *Not significant; High = > 10 tests/1,000 population, Medium = from 1.01 to 10 tests/1,000 population, Low = ≤ 1 test/1,000 population; No information available on city of residence; §The categories of transmission were analyzed with a separate Poisson regression model, including the 37,391 individuals for whom information on transmission category was available. Control of confounding variables = region, HIV testing rate, and age. Population size was disregarded as a misleading variable as it did not show statistical significance in this regression model.