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Table 2 Phenotypic and molecular characteristics (clonality and drug resistance genes) of 26N. gonorrhoeae isolates detected during the period 2010–2012 in Switzerland

From: Characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeaeisolates detected in Switzerland (1998–2012): emergence of multidrug-resistant clones less susceptible to cephalosporins

Isolate Year ST (Genogroup) PPa Minimum inhibitory concentration, mg/Lb PBP1 (ponA) PBP2 (penA)c TEM GyrA ParC PorB (penB) MtrR mtrRpromoter L4 (rplD) L22 (rplV) 23S rRNA (4 copies) ermA/B/C/F and mefA tet(M)
     PEN CFX CRO CIP AZT TET SPE GEN  
1820606 2010 495 + 6 ≤0.016 0.006 0.006 0.38 96 12 8 L421P XII TEM-1 WT WT G120K, A121D A39T, L47P WT WT WT All WT - +
1865296 2010 292 - 0.25 ≤0.016 0.006 2 0.25 0.5 6 4 L421P V - S91F, D95G S87R A121S WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
1872778 2010 2861 (G225) - 0.38 0.047 0.032 >32 0.25 0.75 4 4 L421P XII - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121D WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
1832086 2010 1407 (G1407) - 0.5 0.19 0.047 6 0.25 1.5 8 6 L421P XXXIV - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121N WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
1859198 2010 225 (G225) - 0.5 0.047 0.032 >32 0.38 1.5 8 8 L421P XII - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121D WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
1910312 2010 2992 (G2992) - 0.094 ≤0.016 0.003 ≤0.002 0.25 0.38 6 4 WT II - WT WT WT A39T, R44H WT WT d WT All WT - -
1869994 2010 1766 + 6 ≤0.016 0.006 0.75 ≤0.016 6 6 4 L421P IIg TEM-1 S91F, D95A S87N G120D WT A deletion WT WT All WT - +
1912168 2010 8676 + 32 ≤0.016 ≤0.002 3 0.032 8 4 4 L421P II TEM-1 S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121D WT WT WT WT All WT - +
1922603 2011 3149 (G1407) - 0.38 0.19 0.047 16 0.25 1.5 8 6 L421P XXXIV - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121N WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
1996003 2011 3611 + 12 ≤0.016 0.008 >32 0.125 96 8 4 L421P XIX TEM-1 S91F, D95A S87N, E91K G120K, A121G A39T WT WT WT All WT - +
2017570 2011 1407 (G1407) - 0.38 0.125 0.023 12 0.38 1 8 6 L421P XXXIV - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121N WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
2004277 2011 8708 - 0.125 ≤0.016 ≤0.002 ≤0.002 0.25 0.5 8 4 WT II - WT WT WT G45D WT WT WT All WT - -
1973517 2011 4232 - 0.19 ≤0.016 0.003 ≤0.002 0.19 16 8 6 WT II - WT WT A121S G45D WT WT d WT All WT - +
1929711 2011 2992 (G2992) - 0.064 ≤0.016 0.003 ≤0.002 0.25 0.38 8 6 WT II - WT WT WT A39T, R44H WT WT d WT All WT - -
1944251 2011 2992 (G2992) - 0.047 ≤0.016 0.003 ≤0.002 0.25 0.25 6 4 WT II - WT WT WT A39T, R44H WT WT d WT All WT - -
1954615 2011 8707 + 12 ≤0.016 0.004 1.5 0.064 24 2 4 L421P XIX TEM-1 S91F, D95A S87R A121S A39T WT WT WT All WT - +
1946253 2011 1407 (G1407) - 0.38 0.125 0.032 32 0.75 1.5 8 6 L421P XXXIV - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121N WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
2036196 2012 5528 + >32 ≤0.016 0.004 12 0.25 64 8 4 WT II TEM-135 S91F, D95G D86N G120K, A121D WT WT WT WT All WT - +
2086772 2012 8827 + 3 ≤0.016 ≤0.002 2 0.023 16 6 6 L421P XIX TEM-1 S91F, D95A S87N, E91K G120K, A121D A39T WT WT WT All WT - +
2096513 2012 7616 - 0.047 ≤0.016 0.002 ≤0.002 0.25 0.38 6 8 WT II - WT WT WT A39T, R44H WT WT d WT All WT - -
2112655 2012 8826 - 0.38 0.094 0.023 24 0.125 0.25 3 6 L421P XXXIV - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121N WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
2119347 2012 3378 - 0.38 0.094 0.032 16 0.5 1 8 12 L421P XXXIV - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121N WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
2121127 2012 8825 - 0.125 ≤0.016 0.003 0.75 ≤0.016 0.25 2 1 L421P II - S91F, A92S, D95N E91G G120K, A121D A39T WT WT WT All WT - -
2129562 2012 437 (G225) - 0.25 0.023 0.023 24 0.19 0.5 3 8 L421P V - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121D WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
2131245 2012 8410 + 16 0.023 0.006 3 0.064 8 8 6 WT XXI-like TEM-135 S91F, D95A S87R A121G A39T WT WT WT All WT - +
2132307 2012 3149 (G1407) - 0.38 0.094 0.023 32 0.38 1 8 8 L421P XXXIV - S91F, D95G S87R G120K, A121N WT A deletion WT WT All WT - -
  1. Note. WT, wild-type; +, positive; -, negative.
  2. aPenicillinase producers according to the cefinase disk test (Oxoid) and nitrocefin test.
  3. bAbbreviations and MIC interpretation according to the EUCAST criteria [26]: penicillin (PEN; sensible, S ≤ 0.06 mg/L); ceftriaxone (CRO; S ≤ 0.125 mg/L); cefixime (CFX; S ≤ 0.125 mg/L); ciprofloxacin (CIP; S ≤ 0.03 mg/L); azithromycin (AZT; S ≤0.25 mg/L); tetracycline (TET; S ≤ 0.25 mg/L); spectinomycin (SPE; S ≤ 64 mg/L); gentamicin (GEN; criteria not available).
  4. cThe characteristics of the PBP2 patterns II, V, XII, and XIX were described by Whiley DM et al. [16], those of pattern XXXIV by Hess D et al. [28], and pattern IIg by Takahashi et al. [29]. Pattern XXI-like does not have -574N and A575V as in the XXI [16].
  5. dThe L4 of these Ng isolates possessed three substitutions (i.e., V125A, A147G, R157Q) that have no recognized impact on the macrolides resistance.