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Table 4 Factors associated with development of pulmonary tuberculosis within 12 months after discharge from a tertiary hospital in Botswana

From: Longer hospital stay is associated with higher rates of tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality within 12 months after discharge in a referral hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa

  Models including participants who were diagnosed with TB during their inpatient admission, n = 916 Models excluding participants who were diagnosed with TB during their inpatient admission, n = 713
Variable AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR 95% C I AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Age 21 - 40 years Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
41 - 60 years 1.3 (0.4-4.9) 0.9 (0.3-5.4) 2.5 (0.6-10.7) 2.5 (0.6-10.8) 1.1 (0.2-6.2) 0.9 (0.2-5.8) 1.2 (0.2-8.4) 1.2 (0.2-8.4)
> 60 years 0.9 (0.2-3.5) 1.1 (0.3-4.0) 1.3 (0.2-7.8) 1.5 (0.3-7.6) 2.2 (0.4-10.6) 2.1 (0.4-10.8) 2.9 (0.4-20.5) 2.6 (0.5-14.3)
Sex (male) 1.5 (0.5-4.2) 1.3 (0.5-3.5) 1.7 (0.6-5.1) 1.5 (0.5-4.4) 0.9 (0.2-3.6) 0.9 (0.2-3.6) 0.9 (0.2-4.2) 0.9 (0.2-3.9)
HIV infection* 3.9 (0.8-20.5) 2.9 (0.6-13.1) 2.7 (0.5-15.5) 3.6 (0.6-20.0) 2.8 (0.4-18.4) 2.7 (0.4-17.6) 1.6 (0.2-12.6) 1.6 (0.2-11.7)
CD4 cell* count CD4 > 350 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
CD4 100 - 350 0.9 (0.4-2.1) 0.9 (0.3-2.0) 0.8 (0.2-2.2) 0.9 (0.4-2.1) 0.8 (0.4-2.0) 1.2 (0.3-8.6) 2.2 (0.4-10.6) 3.4 (0.4-28.8)
CD4 < 100 3.1 (1.3-7.5) 3.6 (1.1–6.9) 3.2 (1.2-7.2) 2.9 (1.2-7.1) 2.8 (1.1-6.6) 3.1 (1.1-12.6) 3.0 (1.1-18.4) 6.5 (0.7-61.3)
Prior history of TB treatment 12.4 (3.7-41.1) 11.9 (3.8-37.4) 4.6 (1.2-17.4) 6.8 (2.0-23.6) 10.6 (2.6-44.0) 7.8 (1.7-36.0) 2.4 (0.4-16-4) 3.1 (0.5-18.6)
Total days admitted to the hospital 2.0 (1.1-3.6) NA NA NA 1.4 (0.6-3.2) NA NA NA
Days spent in the same bay with a TB index case NA 1.8 (1.1-2.9) NA NA NA 1.5 (0.4-4.4) NA NA
Days of adjacent exposure to a TB index case NA NA 4.6 (2.2-9.9) NA NA NA 3.4 (1.3-8.9) NA
TB exposure index NA NA NA 1.9 (1.3-2.8) NA NA NA 2.4 (1.3-4.2)
Inpatient diagnosis of TB 2.6 (0.8-8.6) 1.6 (0.5-5.1) 1.9 (0.6 -6.0) 1.8 (0.6-5.6)  
  1. *Given collinearity, models including HIV and CD4 cells were developed separately.
  2. Similarly, different models were developed for the variables: a) total days admitted to the hospital; b) days spent in the same bay with a TB index case; c) days of adjacent to a TB index case; and, d) TB exposure score.
  3. Total days admitted to the hospital, days spent in the same bay with a TB index case, days of adjacent to a TB index case were modelled as increments by 10 (days). TB exposure index was modelled as an ordinal variable with increments by 1 point. To calculate the daily exposure index per participant per day, adjacent cases were given twice the weight of non-adjacent ones. For example, if a participant had 2 adjacent TB cases and one non-adjacent TB patient in his/her bay, the “exposure index” for that day would be calculated as: 2x2+1=5.