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Table 1 Patient characteristics by Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA detection status.

From: Smoking, season, and detection of chlamydia pneumoniaeDNA in clinically stable COPD patients

  Entire Study Group (%) DNAa Present (%) DNA Absent (%) Unadjusted ORb (95% CI)
Number 100 27 (27.0) 73 (73.0)  
Male 61 / 100 (61.0) 20 / 27 (74.1) 41 / 73 (56.2) 2.2 (0.8, 5.9)
Current smoking 32 / 100 (32.0) 13 / 27 (48.1) 19 / 73 (26.0) 2.6 (1.1, 6.6)
Season (Nov. to April) 44 / 100 (44.0) 18 / 27 (66.7) 26 / 73 (35.6) 3.6 (1.4, 9.2)
Smoker or Season 63 / 100 (63.0) 25 / 27 (92.6) 38 / 73 (52.1) 11.5 (2.5, 52.2)
Chronic cough 50 / 98 (51.0) 16 / 26 (61.5) 34 / 72 (47.2) 1.8 (0.7, 4.5)
Chronic sputum 64 / 99 (64.6) 24 / 27 (88.9) 40 / 72 (55.6) 6.4 (1.8, 23.2)
Pneumonia in 1 year 9 / 98 (9.2) 2 / 26 (7.7) 7 / 72 (9.7) 0.8 (0.2, 4.0)
Prednisone 18 / 98 (18.4) 3 / 27 (11.1) 15 / 71 (21.1) 0.5 (0.1, 1.8)
Inhaled corticosteroids 67 / 98 (68.4) 19 / 27 (70.4) 48 / 71 (67.6) 1.1 (0.4, 3.0)
Coronary artery disease 10 / 92 (10.9) 2 / 27 (7.4) 8 / 65 (12.3) 0.6 (0.1, 2.9)
Diabetes mellitus 5 / 92 (5.4) 2 / 27 (7.4) 3 / 65 (4.6) 1.7 (0.3, 10.5)
  1. a C. pneumoniae DNA detected by nested polymerase chain reaction [14]. b Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (SPSS).