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Table 1 Characteristics of included trials

From: Adjunctive corticosteroids for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients with HIV infection: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Author (year) reference Diagnosis of PCP Baseline treatment for PCP Oxygenation entry criteria Corticoid (route)/initial daily dose/duration (days) Interval (max.) * Blinding patients/care givers/assessors Concealed allocation/n centres Sample size calculation/stopped early Randomised individuals to I/C Total deaths in I/C
Clement et al. (1989) [9] BAL, sputum 88% TMP-SMX, 12% Pentamidine PaO2<51 mmHg (room air) Methylprednisolon (IV)/240 mg/8 d Unlimited Yes/Yes/Unclear Unclear/1 Unclear/No 19/22 9/9 at 56 days
Montaner et al. (1990) [8] BAL TMP-SMX, Pentamidine, Dapsone-TMP 85–90% O2-Saturation † Prednisone (oral)/60 mg/7 d with 14 d tapering 48 h Yes/Yes/Unclear Yes/1 Yes/Yes 18/19 1/0 at 30 days 2/1 at 90 days
Bozzette et al. (1990) [16] 75% BAL, 15% sputum + presumed 80% TMP-SMX, 18% Pentamidine, 2% Dapsone-TMP Hypoxemia ratio >75 ‡ Prednisone (oral)/80 mg/21 d or as baseline treatment 36 h No/No/Unclear Yes/6 Yes/No 123/128 13/28 at 31 days 20/33 at 84 days
Gagnon et al. (1990) [7] BAL, biopsy, sputum TMP-SMX PaO2<75 mmHg (35% oxygen) Methylprednisolon (IV)/160 mg/7–10 d 72 h Yes/Yes/Unclear Unclear/1 Yes/Yes 12/11 3/9 at 28 days 5/9 at 120 days
Nielsen et al. (1992) [6] BAL, biopsy TMP-SMX PaO2<67.5 mmHg (room air) Methylprednisolon (IV)/2 mg/kg/10 d 24 h No/No/Unclear Unclear/3 Unclear/Yes 30/29 2/9 at 34 days 4/9 at 90 days
Walmsley et al. (1995) [19] BAL, biopsy, sputum 82% TMP-SMX, 17% Pentamidine, 1% Dapsone-TMP PaO2<70 mmHg (room air) § Methylprednisolon (IV)/80 mg/10 d 24 h Yes/Yes/Unclear Yes/3 Yes/No 40/38 4/6 at 35 days
  1. Abbreviations: PCP, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia; n, number; I/C, intervention/control group; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage; TMP, trimethoprim; SMX, sulfamethoxazole; IV, intravenous.
  2. * Maximal interval between initiation of baseline treatment for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and initiation of corticosteroid.
  3. † Or 5% decrease on exercise.
  4. ‡ PaO2 divided by fraction of inspired oxygen.
  5. § Or alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient >40 mmHg if arterial blood gases could not be assessed on room air.