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Table 2 Characteristics of 187 patients with S. pneumoniae meningitis according to age groups

From: Clinical presentation and prognostic factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis according to the focus of infection

% (No/total) or Median (25/75 percentiles) Adults (≥ 16 years) (N = 142) Children (<16 years) (N = 45)
Sex (female/male) 71/71 20/25
Age 61 years (50–71) 12 month (7–18)
Predisposing condition* 13% (19/140) 9% (4/45)
Underlying disease§ 23% (32/140) 2% (1/45)**
Clinical features on admission   
   Fever 97% (119/123) 95% (41/43)
   Headache 57% (47/82) 3% (1/34)**
   Back rigidity 61% (67/110) 46% (19/41)
   Decreased consciousness 96% (131/137) 87% (34/39)
Convulsion
(Debut before/
after admission)
28% (37/130)
6% (8/130)
22% (29/130)
37% (17/45)
24% (11/45)**
13% (6/45)
   Duration of symptoms 2 days (2–4) (83/142) 2 days (2–6) (28/45)
Mechanical ventilation 67% (86/128) 28% (11/40)**
CT-scan preceding lumbar puncture 13% (19/142) 4% (2/45)
Steroid therapy 7% (8/121) 43% (18/42)**
Paraclinical findings CSF WBC (cells/μL) 2475 (122–4659) (109/142) 1690 (775–2622) (40/45)
   CSF protein (g/L) 3.7 (2.1–6.9) (91/142) 1.6 (0.8–2.2)** (32/45)
   CSF glucose (mmol/L) 0.9 (0.3–2.5) (95/142) 1.4 (0.4–3.2) (34/45)
   CSF/blood glucose ratio 0.09 (0.02–0.3) (72/142) 0.2 (0.07–0.6) (21/45)
   Positive CSF culture 93% (131/141) 100% (45/45)
   Blood WBC (109 cells/L) 15.9 (10.1–24.8) (105/142) 20.3 (12.8–29.2) (29/45)
   Positive blood culture 67% (94/141) 67% (30/45)
   Decreased penicillin susceptibility 4% (5/139) 11% (5/45)
Death during hospitalization 27% (38/142) 2% (1/45)**
   1. Neurological causes# 11% (15/142)$ 2% (1/45)
   2. Systemic causes¤ 6% (9/142)$ 0% (0/45)
   3. Other causes& 2% (3/142) 0% (0/45)
   Combination of 1 and 2 8% (11/142) 0% (0/45)
Sequelae 52% (50/96) 17% (7/42)**
   1. Hearing loss 30% (29/96) 12% (5/42)
   2. Neurologic abnormalityˆ 22% (21/96) 2.5% (1/42)
   Combination of 1 and 2 0% (0/96) 2.5% (1/42)
Number of days hospitalised among survivors 15 (11–22) 11 (10–14)**
  1. * Predisposing condition was defined a previous head trauma, liquorrhoea, dura disruption etc.
  2. §Underlying disease was defined as previous splenectomy, presence of immunodeficit, cancer, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or the use of immunosuppressive drugs.
  3. # Includes brain herniation, cerebrovascular complications.
  4. ¤ Includes septic shock, multiple-organ dysfunction.
  5. & Includes withdrawal of care due to incurable cancer (1 patient), gastrointestinal bleeding (+/- Bilroth II operation, 2 patients). ˆNeurologic abnormality was defined as presence of aphasia, ataxia and paresis at discharge.
  6. $ 1 patient also had gastrointestinal bleeding/Billroth II operation.
  7. **Significant difference vs. adult cases (Mann Whitney test or Fisher Exact Test, P < 0.05.