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Table 3 Prognostic clinical parameters for fatal outcome# due to S. pneumoniae meningitis

From: Clinical presentation and prognostic factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis according to the focus of infection

    Univariat analysis   Multivariate  
% or median (25/75 percentiles) and (No/total) Non-survivors N = 41 Survivors N = 146 OR¤ P-value OR¤ P-value
Sex (female) 51% (21/41) 48% (70/146) 1.14 (0.57–2.28) 0.71   
Age (in years) 67 (56–74) 50 (1–67) 1.036 (1.02–1.06) <0.001 1.03 (1.00–1.07) 0.05
Age ≤ 16 years 2% (1/41) 30% (44/146) 0.06 (0.008–0.44) 0.006 0.36 (0.02–7.13) 0.50
Predisposing condition* 10% (4/40) 13% (19/145) 0.74 (0.24–2.30) 0.60   
Underlying disease§ 30% (12/40) 15% (21/145) 2.53 (1.12–5.74) 0.03 1.72 (0.58–5.08) 0.33
Admission during the first half of the year 83% (34/41) 68% (99/146) 2.30 (0.95–5.58) 0.06 1.27 (0.41–3.97) 0.68
Fever 95% (35/37) 97% (125/129) 0.56 (0.10–3.19) 0.61   
History of headache 62% (13/21) 38% (35/95) 2.79 (1.05–7.38) 0.04   
Back rigidity 55% (16/29) 57% (70/122) 0.91 (0.40–2.07) 0.84   
Decreased consciousness 98% (40/41) 93% (125/135) 3.20 (0.40–25.8) 0.46   
Convulsion 53% (19/36) 25% (35/139) 2.32 (1.07–5.04) 0.03 4.53 (1.74–11.8) 0.002
Mechanical ventilation& 90% (35/39) 48% (62/129) 9.45 (3.18–28.1) <0.001   
CT-scan preceding lumbar puncture 22% (9/41) 8% (12/146) 3.14 (1.22–8.01) 0.02 2.62 (0.82–8.41) 0.11
Steroid therapy 9% (3/32) 18% (23/131) 0.49 (0.14–1.73) 0.27   
Bacteraemia 78% (31/40) 64% (93/146) 1.96 (0.87–4.43) 0.11 2.02 (0.70–5.84) 0.19
Otogenic focus 10% (4/41) 36% (53/146) 0.19 (0.06–0.56) 0.003 0.16 (0.05–0.57) 0.005
Lung focus 39% (16/41) 17% (25/146) 3.10 (1.45–6.63) 0.004 1.46 (0.53–3.97) 0.46
CSF WBC (109 cells/L) 0.32 (0.07–3.1) (33/41) 11 (0.7–4.7) (116/146) 0.88 (0.77–1.01) 0.06   
500 cells/μL 55% (18/33) 22% (26/116) 4.15 (1.84–9.36) 0.001   
CSF protein (g/L) 4.7 (2.7–8.9) (27/41) 2.4 (1.3–4.8) (96/146) 1.19 (1.07–1.33) 0.001   
CSF glucose (mmol/L) 0.4 (0.1–1.6) (29/41) 1.0 (0.4–3.1) (100/146) 0.83 (0.63–1.08) 0.17   
<1 mmol/L 76% (22/29) 52% (52/100) 3.41 (1.33–8.69) 0.01   
CSF/blood glucose ratio 0.05 (0.01–0.11) (21/41) 0.18 (0.06–0.5) (72/146) 0.01 (0.00–0.36) 0.01   
Blood WBC (109 cells/L) 14.8 (9.5–24.1) (28/41) 17.7 (10.8–26.8) (106/146) 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 0.34   
  1. # Within 100 days after admission.
  2. ¤ OR was calculated per additional units for continuous data.
  3. * Predisposing condition was defined a previous head trauma, liquorrhoea, dura disruption etc.
  4. §Underlying disease was defined as previous splenectomy, presence of immunodeficit, cancer, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or the use of immunosuppressive drugs.
  5. & If need for assisted ventilation was included in the multivariate analysis convulsions, absence of otogenic focus, and need for assisted ventilation were of significant importance for fatal outcome (p < 0.05, data not shown).