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Table 2 Clinical characteristics with regard to the presence of Candida in the bile fluid

From: Risk factors and outcome in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with persistent biliary candidiasis

  No Candida Candida Transient Candida Persistent Candida Reference value
Patients 120 30 15 15  
Age at diagnosis (years) 32.0 ± 1.1* 31.0 ± 2.3 37.0 ± 3.6 27.0 ± 2.9  
Male sex 87 (72.5) 21 (70.0) 9 (60.0) 12 (80.0)  
IBD 86 (71.7) 22 (73.3) 10 (66.7) 12 (80.0)  
Overlap with autoimmune hepatitis 11 (9.2) 2 (6.7) 2 (13.3) 0 (0.0)  
Dominant stenosis 76 (63.3) 24 (80.0) 11 (86.7) 13 (73.3)  
- at first diagnosis 17 (14.2) 5 (16.7) 2 (13.3) 3 (20.0)  
- time from first diagnosis, years 5.9 ± 5.7 5.6 ± 4.5 5.6 ± 4.9 5.6 ± 4.4  
Number of ERCs per patient 3.0 ± 0.3 4.0 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.7 4.0 ± 1.0  
Laboratory parameters at baseline    
Bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.9 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.7 0.8 ± 1.6 -1.1
ALT (IU/L) 88.7 ± 10.5 118.0 ± 23.2 104.6 ± 45.6 124 ± 12.8 -23
AST (IU/L) 53.9 ± 6.2 82.0 ± 18.3 90.4 ± 24.4 70.0 ± 28.1 -19
AP (IU/L) 240.4 ± 23.0 266.5 ± 41.6 270.0 ± 80.0 265.0 ± 24.3 -175
GGT (IU/L) 247.5 ± 31.1 344.5 ± 67.7a 448.0 ± 112.9a 279 ± 62.6 -60
Albumin (g/dL) 41.0 ± 0.6 45.0 ± 1.5 41.0 ± 2.7 45.0 ± 1.3a 35-55
Mayo Risk Score -0.25 ± 0.1 -0.28 ± 0.3 0.04 ± 0.3 -0.3 ± 0.4  
Clinical outcome    
Development of CCA 6 (5.0) 5 (16.7)a 4 (26.7)a 1 (6.7)  
Death 8 (6.7) 4 (13.3) 3 (20.0) 1 (6.7)  
OLT 20 (16.8) 14 (46.7)a 5 (33.3) 9 (60.0)a  
Death/OLT 28 (23.3) 18 (60.0)a 8 (53.3) 10 (66.7)a  
Survival free of liver transplantation (years) 20.1 ± 2.1 11.5 ± 2.6a 17.8 ± 7.3 11.1 ± 2.1a  
  1. IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; AP, alkaline phosphate; GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase; ERC, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography; OLT, orthotopic liver transplantation; CCA, cholangiocarcinoma.
  2. *Data are presented as N (%) or mean ± SD.
  3. aSignificantly different from patients without candida (p <0.05).