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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of study population

From: Persistent high antibody titres against Coxiella burnetiiafter acute Q fever not explained by continued exposure to the source of infection: a case-control study

  Possible chronic Q fever n = 53 Non chronic Q fever n = 110 p-value
Gender (male) 30 (56.6%) 53 (48.2%) 0.314
Mean age ± SD 56.3 (± 10.7) 53.3 (± 12.1) 0.128
Living area (rural) 36 (67.9%) 65 (59.1%) 0.227
Participant of Q-HORT study 21 (39.6%) 110 (100%) -
Year of acute Q fever diagnosis    0.454
2007 4 (7.5%) 24 (21.8%)
2008 16 (30.2%) 41 (37.3%)
2009 22 (41.5%) 45 (40.9%)
2010/2012 2 (3.8%) 0 (0.0%)
Unknown 9 (17.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Hospitalization due to Q fever 10 (18.9%) 18 (16.4%) 0.691
Smoker 11 (21.2%) 38 (34.9%) 0.077
Co-morbidity    
Cardiovascular disease 0 (0%) 7 (6.4%) 0.060
Immunosuppressed 3 (5.7%) 5 (4.5%) 0.758
Non-hematologic cancer 4 (7.5%) 3 (2.7%) 0.155
Pregnancy 1 (1.9%) 4 (3.6%) 0.544
Renal failure 1 (2.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.141
Diabetes 5 (9.4%) 6 (5.5%) 0.343
Occupational risk 2 (3.8%) 3 (2.7%) 0.717
Contact animal products    
Fertilizer 8 (15.1%) 9 (8.2%) 0.176
Hay and straw 7 (13.2%) 14 (12.7%) 0.932
Placental material 4 (7.5%) 1 (0.9%) 0.021
Fur/skin/wool 30 (56.6%) 63 (57.3%) 0.936
Intensity contact fertilizer    0.602
≤3 times per week 2 (3.8%) 2 (1.8%)
>3 times per week 5 (9.6%) 6 (5.5%)
Intensity contact hay and straw    0.640
≤3 times per week 2 (3.8%) 7 (6.4%)
>3 times per week 5 (9.4%) 7 (6.4%)
Intensity contact placental material    0.036
≤3 times per week 1 (1.9%) 1 (0.9%)
>3 times per week 3 (5.7%) 0 (0.0%)
Intensity contact fur/skin/wool    0.446
≤3 times per week 1 (1.9%) 7 (6.4%)
>3 times per week 29 (54.7%) 55 (50.0%)
Contact animals    
Goats, cows or sheep 5 (9.4%) 6 (5.5%) 0.343
Cats 13 (24.5%) 19 (17.3%) 0.275
Dogs 19 (35.8%) 46 (41.8%) 0.466
Birds (including chicken and ducks) 2 (3.8%) 13 (11.8%) 0.096
Horses 5 (9.4%) 9 (8.2%) 0.789
Rodents 3 (5.7%) 7 (6.4%) 0.861
Others (rabbit, fish, pig, tortoise) 2 (3.8%) 10 (9.1%) 0.659
Intensity contact animals    0.877
≤3 times per week 2 (3.8%) 6 (5.5%)
>3 times per week 28 (52.8%) 59 (53.6%)
Distance from house to infected farm    0.198
0 - 2,000 m 7 (13.2%) 24 (22.0%)
>2,000 - 5,000 m 21 (39.6%) 48 (44.0%)
>5,000 m 25 (47.2%) 37 (33.9%)