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Table 3 Percentages of resistance against commonly used antibiotics in positive gram-negative urine cultures on and off antibiotic prophylaxis

From: The influence of antibiotic prophylaxis on bacterial resistance in urinary tract infections in children with spina bifida

   Gram negative uropathogens        
   AmpC negative     AmpC positive   Non-fermenting  
   E.coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus mirabilis Klebsiella oxytoca Enterobacter cloacae Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas aeroginosa p-value AP+ vs AP-
  Number of cultures 387 42 34 21 18 17 47  
Antibiogram          
Penicillines          
Amoxicillin total 66.7 NC 24.2 NC NC NC NC 0.031
  AP+ 73.8 NC 11.5 NC NC NC NC  
  AP- 56.3 NC # NC NC NC NC  
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid total 29.7 9.5 6.1 9.5 NC NC NC 0.172
  AP+ 32.8 9.1 7.7 # NC NC NC  
  AP- 25.3 # # 14.3 NC NC NC  
Piperacillin total 68.2 NC 9.1 NC NC NC 2.6 0.950
  AP+ 73.5 NC 9.5 NC NC NC 3.1  
  AP- 59.5 NC # NC NC NC #  
Piperacillin/tazobactam total 7.8 17.1 3.0 5.3 # # 2.2 0.176
  AP+ 10.3 15.6 3.8 # # # 2.7  
  AP- 4.0 # # 7.7 # # #  
Cephalosporines          
Cefazolin (1) total 17.9 43.8 4.5 56.3 NC NC NC 0.346
  AP+ 20.6 54.5 0.0 # NC NC NC  
  AP- 13.5 # # 50.0 NC NC NC  
Cefuroxim (2) total 11.4 45.2 3.0 14.3 NC NC NC 0.016
  AP+ 13.5 51.5 0.0 # NC NC NC  
  AP- 8.2 # # 9.1 NC NC NC  
Ceftazidim (3) total 1.7 21.7 4.3 5.9 NC NC 4.3 0.161
  AP+ 2.6 29.4 4.5 # NC NC 2.6  
  AP- 0.0 # # 4.5 NC NC #  
Ceftriaxon (3) total 1.9 19.4 0.0 5.9 # NC # 0.148
  AP+ 2.5 25.0 0.0 # # NC #  
  AP- 0.8 # # 9.1 # NC #  
Other bactolactam          
Meropenem total 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.5 0.461
  AP+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 # # # 9.1  
  AP- 0.0 # # 0.0 # ? #  
Aminoglycosides          
Amikacin total 1.9 19.0 4.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 0.054
  AP+ 2.6 26.7 4.3 # # # 3.0  
  AP- 0.9 # # 0.0 # ? #  
Gentamicin total 4.7 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.500
  AP+ 4.4 3.0 0.0 # # # 0.0  
  AP- 4.8 # # 0.0 # 0.0 #  
Tobramicin total 4.9 4.8 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.194
  AP+ 4.8 6.1 3.8 # # # 2.6  
  AP- 4.4 # # 0.0 # 0.0 #  
Fluorquinolones          
Ciprofloxacin total 7.8 52.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.021
  AP+ 10.2 63.6 0.0 # # # 6.1  
  AP- 3.6 # # 0.0 # 0.0 #  
Norfloxacin total 7.7 52.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.4 0.047
  AP+ 9.7 63.6 0.0 # # # 11.1  
  AP- 4.5 # # 0.0 # 0.0 #  
Levofloxacin total 9.4 29.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.4 0.057
  AP+ 10.6 33.3 0.0 # # # 11.1  
  AP- 7.7 # # 0.0 # 0.0 #  
Other antibiotics          
Trimetoprim total 66.6 88.2 34.8 23.5 16.7 66.7 NC <0.001
  AP+ 80.7 63.6 36.4 # # # NC  
  AP- 42.9 # # 18.2 # 90.9 NC  
Cotrimoxazol total 55.7 52.4 33.3 19.0 11.8 47.1 NC <0.001
  AP+ 69.7 51.5 30.8 # # # NC  
  AP- 35.4 # # 14.3 # 10.1 NC  
Nitrofurantoin total 16.4 90.5 NC 28.6 64.7 0.0 NC <0.001
  AP+ 22.4 93.9 NC # # # NC  
  AP- 7.7 # NC 21.4 # 0.0 NC  
  1. Legend: # = not calculated as less than ten samples tested, NC = Not considered due to intrinsic resistance or uncommon clinical drug/bug combination