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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses regarding the risk factors of the carbapenem-resistant E.coli (CREC) and carbapenem-susceptible E.coli (CSEC) groups

From: Risk factors and medical costs for healthcare-associated carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli infection among hospitalized patients in a Chinese teaching hospital

Variable Study group Univariate Multivariable
Case (n = 49) Control (n = 98) OR 95% CI P OR 95%CI P
Demographic characteristics
 Sex, male (%) 20 (41%) 40 (41%)    0.57    
 Age {year, median (range)} 51 (0–82) 53 (0–91)    0.69    
Related to hospitalization
 Prior hospital stay (<6 months) 8 (77%) 57 (58%) 2.48 1.10-5.56 0.03 3.96 1.26-12.42 0.02
 ICU stay (<6 months) 18 (36%) 22 (22%) 1.48 0.98-2.24 0.06    
 Operation history 26 (53%) 28 (29%) 2.53 1.28-5.01 0.01    
 Urinary catheter insertion 32 (65%) 59 (60%) 1.55 1.04-2.32 0.03    
 Mechanical ventilation 16 (32%) 18 (18%) 1.80 0.97-3.35 0.06    
 Tracheostomy 12 (24%) 10 (10%) 1.64 1.09-2.45 0.02 2.24 1.14-4.38 0.02
 Bronchofibroscope use 7 (14%) 0 (0%) 72.96 0.53-9980.04 0.09    
 Central venous catheter insertion 15 (30%) 7 (7%) 4.48 1.72-11.67 0.00 8.15 2.31-28.72 0.00
 Gastric tube insertion 28 (57%) 37 (37%) 1.53 1.09-2.16 0.01    
 Wound drainage tube use 18 (36%) 27 (27%) 1.46 0.93-2.29 0.09    
Underlying disorder
 Central nervous diseases 17 (34%) 35 (35%) 0.96 0.47-1.96 0.52    
 Respiratory diseases 7 (14%) 18 (18%) 0.74 0.28-1.92 0.35    
 Circulatory diseases 11 (22%) 24 (24%) 0.89 0.39-2.01 0.48    
 Endocrine diseases 7 (14%) 11 (11%) 1.32 0.48-3.64 0.39    
 Hematological diseases 3 (6%) 7 (7%) 0.85 0.21-3.43 0.56    
 Digestive system diseases 9 (18%) 23 (23%) 0.73 0.31-1.74 0.31    
 Urinary system diseases 11 (36%) 8 (27%) 3.61 1.23-10.61 0.02 16.69 3.01-89.76 0.00
 Autoimmune diseases 3 (6%) 5 (5%) 1.21 0.28-5.30 0.54    
 Burn 10 (20%) 10 (10%) 2.26 0.87-5.86 0.08    
Antimicrobials agents exposure
 Cephalosporins a 36 (73%) 52 (53%) 2.45 1.16-5.18 0.01    
 Carbapenemsb 19 (38%) 19 (19%) 1.91 1.19-3.04 0.01    
 Antifungal agentsc 17 (35%) 9 (9%) 1.63 1.15-2.32 0.01    
 Anti-anaerobic agentsd 2 (4%) 3 (3%) 1.34 0.22-8.34 0.54    
 Glycopeptidese and Oxazolidinones 13 (26%) 10 (10%) 1.73 1.08-2.78 0.02    
Relative laboratory results
 Hemoglobin 104 ± 26 114 ± 26 1.71 1.13-2.59 0.01 2.83 1.46-5.50 0.00
 Serum creatinine 116 ± 151 115 ± 25 2.85 0.85-9.60 0.09    
 Blood albumin 32 ± 7 36 ± 7 1.65 1.05-2.57 0.03    
 Blood glucose 9 ± 7 6 ± 3 2.59 1.16-5.77 0.02 7.01 1.89-26.02 0.00
  1. NOTE. Categorical variables are no/total no (%), and continuous variables are mean ± SD.CI:confidence interval, OR:odds ratio
  2. a Cephalosporins include First, second, third and fourth generation cephalosporins
  3. bCarbapenems include imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem
  4. cAntifungal agents include metronidazole and tinidazole
  5. dAnti-anaerobic agents include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin
  6. eGlycopeptides include vancomycin, teicoplanin, and norvancomycin