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Table 2 Differences in the Hawthorne effect among various departments, occupations, observation times, observation locations, number of indications per hand hygiene opportunity, and hand hygiene indications

From: Identifying heterogeneity in the Hawthorne effect on hand hygiene observation: a cohort study of overtly and covertly observed results

Variable Pair no. Hand hygiene compliance (%) Hawthorne effect (percentage point difference) p valuea
Overt observation Covert observation
Department (N = 6094)      0.255
 Medicine 1212 76.6 53.3 23.3  
 Surgery 1258 76.1 48.5 27.6  
 Others 577 86.5 70.2 16.3  
Occupation (N = 6094)      < 0.001
 Nurse 2105 84.2 54.2 30.0  
 Physician 619 67.9 57.4 10.5  
 Caregiver 106 50.0 42.5 7.5  
 Others 217 64.1 57.1 7.0  
Timeb (N = 6094)      1.000
 Day shift 2493 78.5 55.9 22.6  
 Early night shift 516 77.1 50.4 26.7  
 Late night shift 38 73.7 28.9 44.8  
Location (N = 6094)      < 0.001
 Ward 2034 78.1 50.3 27.8  
 Intensive care unit 880 80.6 69.2 11.4  
 Outpatient department 133 64.7 24.1 40.6  
Numbers of indications per hand hygiene opportunityc (N = 4686)      0.541
 1 2301 76.7 53.2 23.5  
 2 42 85.7 73.8 11.9  
Hand hygiene indicationd (N = 1300)      0.130
 Before touching a patient 270 72.2 47.4 24.8  
 Before clean/aseptic procedures 19 78.9 52.6 26.3  
 After body fluid exposure risk 18 77.8 50.0 27.8  
 After touching a patient 287 83.3 59.9 23.4  
 After touching patient surroundings 56 55.4 53.6 1.8  
Overall (N = 6094) 3047 78.2 54.6 23.6  
  1. aGeneralized estimating equations were used to test whether there were significant differences in the Hawthorne effect among different categories of each variable
  2. bThe day shift was 0800–1600 h, the early night shift 1600–2400 h, and the late night shift 2400–0800 h
  3. cOnly the matched pairs with the same number of indications for both overt and covert observation methods were included
  4. dOnly the matched pairs with the same HH indication for both overt and covert observation methods were included