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Table 1 Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with MDR and non-MDR infections

From: Epidemiology and risk factors for multi-drug resistant hospital-acquired urinary tract infection in patients with liver cirrhosis: single center experience in Serbia

Variable MDR
(n = 35)
Non-MDR
(n = 30)
P
Male 27 (56.3) 21 (43.8) 0.579
Age 63.8 ± 11.9 57.3 ± 9.7 0.018
Age groups
 35–64 17 (41.4) 24 (58.6) 0.214
  > 65 18 (75.0) 6 (25.0) 0.011
Etiology of cirrhosis
 Alcohol 27 (57.4) 20 (42.6) 0.411
 Viral 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3) 0.678
 Metabolic 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0) 1.000
 Autoimmune 1 (14.3) 6 (85.7) 0.026
 Cryptogenic 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 1.000
Comorbidities
 DM 10 (66.7) 5 (33.3) 0.377
 Renal Insufficiency 3 (60.0) 2 (40.0) 1.000
 Renal or urethral structural abnormalities 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 1.000
Co-infections
 Pneumonia 10 (66.7) 5 (33.3) 0.377
 Sepsis 3 (60.0) 2 (40.0) 1.000
Clostridium difficile 3 (75.0) 1 (25.0) 0.618
Clinical characteristics
 Indwelling Urinary Catheter 15 (45.5) 18 (54.5) 0.216
 Antibiotic use in the last 7 days 26 (65.0) 14 (35.0) 0.040
 Antibiotic use in the last 90 days 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 1.000
 Fluoroquinolones 9 (50.0) 9 (50.0) 0.784
 Cephalosporins 12 (80.0) 3 (20.0) 0.021
 Aminoglycosides 2 (40.0) 3 (60.0) 0.655
 Metronidazole 14 (70.0) 6 (30.0) 0.108
 Other 5 (55.6) 4 (44.4) 1.000
 CP Class C 27 (61.4) 17 (38.6) 0.111
 MELD score 21.8 (6.65) 21.9 (5.42) 0.913
 CLIF-C AD score 90.1 (9.1) 86.2 (11.2) 0.126
 Ascites (1, 2, 3) 30 (54.5) 25 (45.5) 1.000
 Encephalopathy (1, 2, 3) 22 (68.8) 10 (31.3) 0.025
 Hepatorenal syndrome 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 1.000
 History of variceal hemorrhage 5 (45.5) 6 (54.5) 0.742
 BUN (mmol/l) 14.5 [10.2] 9.7 [6.1] 0.028
 Creatinine (μmol/l) 100.5 [71.5] 91.9 [61.8] 0.609
 Serum sodium (mmol/l) 131.9 [6.7] 132.7 [7.5] 0.611
 Ferritin (μg/l) 611.4 [360.8] 169.2 [395.7] 0.024
 Billirubin (μmol/l) 33.0 [82.7] 49.1[136.1] 0.490
Outcomes
 Length of Hospitalization 26,0 [30.0] 27.5 [19.0] 0.980
 Change of therapy 19 (59.4) 13 (40.6) 0.459
 Death 9 (64.3) 5 (35.7) 0.546
  1. Notes: This table shows clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with MDR and non MDR infections. The sample size is 65 patients. Descriptive statistics are presented as means ± SD, medians [IQR] and numbers (%). MDR stands for multidrug resistant; DM Diabetes mellitus, CP Child-Pugh score, MELD Model for End Stage Liver Disease score, CLIF-C AD Chronic Liver Failure-Consortium Acute Decompensation score, BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT Alanine aminotransferase and INR International normalized ratio