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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort stratified by exposure status

From: The role of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance in recurrent community-onset Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections: a retrospective cohort study

Variable ESC-S EB index UTI (unexposed)a ESC-R EB index UTI (exposed) P value
Demographics
 Age in years (median, IQR) 49 (27–64) 60 (46–70) <0.01
 Female gender 132 (87%) 108 (72%) <0.01
 Nonwhite race 81 (54%) 78 (52%) 0.73
 Culture obtained in outpatient clinic 119 (79%) 89 (59%) <0.01
 Culture obtained in ED 29 (19%) 54 (36%) <0.01
 Culture obtained within 72 h of inpatient admission 3 (2%) 8 (5%) 0.23
Comorbidities/Exposures
 UTI in prior 6 months 57 (38%) 65 (43%) 0.37
 Urinary catheter 9 (6%) 27 (18%) <0.01
 Surgery in prior 6 months 21 (14%) 36 (24%) 0.04
 Prostate disease (if male) 6 (32%) 20 (47%) >0.99
 Liver diseaseb 1 (1%) 8 (5%) 0.04
 Respiratory diseasec 17 (11%) 29 (19%) 0.06
 Diabetes mellitus 14 (9%) 31 (21%) 0.01
 History of hemodialysis 1 (1%) 5 (3%) 0.22
 Malignancy 11 (7%) 28 (19%) <0.01
 Prior renal transplantation 6 (4%) 13 (8%) 0.11
 Rehabilitation or SNF stay in prior 6 months 3 (2%) 9 (6%) 0.11
 Hospitalization in prior 6 months 35 (23%) 66 (44%) <0.01
Antibiotic exposuresd
 Any antibiotic 84 (56%) 94 (62%) 0.24
 First-generation cephalosporin 8 (5%) 18 (12%) 0.04
 Extended-spectrum cephalosporin 4 (3%) 19 (13%) <0.01
 Extended-spectrum penicillin 5 (3%) 12 (8%) 0.07
 Amoxicillin/clavulanate or ampicillin/sulbactam 5 (3%) 11 (7%) 0.11
 Piperacillin-tazobactam 0 (0%) 1 (1%) >0.99
 Fluoroquinolone 28 (19%) 41 (27%) 0.07
 Aztreonam 0 (0%) 1 (1%) >0.99
 Carbapenem 1 (1%) 5 (3%) 0.02
 Aminoglycoside 1 (1%) 3 (2%) 0.62
 Nitrofurantoin 26 (17%) 28 (19%) 0.78
 TMP-SMX 19 (13%) 36 (24%) 0.02
 Fosfomycin 1 (1%) 2 (1%) >0.99
Severity of index UTI
 Pyelonephritis at diagnosis 18 (12%) 44 (29%) <0.01
 BSI at diagnosis 3 (2%) 6 (4%) 0.51
 Admitted to hospital 12 (8%) 30 (20%) <0.01
Causative organism of index UTI
Escherichia coli 116 (77%) 112 (74%) 0.59
Klebsiella species 18 (12%) 20 (13%) 0.72
Enterobacter species 12 (8%) 14 (9%) 0.69
Citrobacter species 3 (2%) 1 (1%) 0.63
Proteus species 2 (1%) 4 (3%) 0.69
  1. aData are presented as numbers (percentages) except where noted
  2. bHepatitis or cirrhosis
  3. cCOPD or chronic bronchitis
  4. dReceipt in the 6 months prior to index EB UTI presentation
  5. Abbreviations: BSI bloodstream infection, CI confidence interval, ESC-R extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant, ESC-S extended-spectrum cephalosporin-susceptible, ED Emergency Department, IQR interquartile range, SNF skilled nursing facility, TMP-SMX trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, UTI urinary tract infection