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Table 3 Factors associated with antibiotic use among sore throat/pharyngitis visitsc

From: Diagnosis and Management of Group a Streptococcal Pharyngitis in the United States, 2011–2015

  Events (n) ABX % Adjusted HRb 95% Confidence Limits
A. 17 years and younger
Diagnostic test (ref. NAAT)
 RADT only 4,682,423 52.49 2.23 2.16 2.31
 RADT and culture 2,751,575 26.56 0.91 0.88 0.94
 No test 1,834,351 55.73 2.30 2.22 2.38
 Other test combinations 950,367 40.68 1.57 1.52 1.62
Place of service (ref. office)
 ED 262,364 50.15 1.01 1.00 1.01
 Urgent carea 483,304 55.71 1.15 1.15 1.16
 Laboratory/other 554,423 34.45 0.76 0.76 0.77
Provider type (ref. pediatrician)
 Family medicine 1,577,559 56.53 1.40 1.40 1.41
 Internal medicine 235,431 55.6 1.40 1.39 1.41
 Other 3,309,058 46.52 1.20 1.20 1.21
B. 18 years and older
Diagnostic test (ref. NAAT)
 RADT only 3,400,327 54.66 1.49 1.44 1.54
 RADT and culture 967,958 44.58 1.16 1.13 1.20
 No test 3,397,174 57.88 1.59 1.54 1.64
 Other test combinations 773,114 50.57 1.41 1.36 1.45
Place of service (ref. office)
 ED 411,369 51.01 0.92 0.91 0.92
 Urgent care 824,376 57.39 1.10 1.10 1.11
 Laboratory/other 537,543 41.82 0.73 0.72 0.73
Provider type (ref. family medicine)
 Internal medicine 235,431 55.6 0.99 0.99 0.99
 Pediatrician 5,107,500 39.92 0.65 0.65 0.66
 Other 3,309,058 46.52 0.93 0.92 0.93
  1. Multivariable Anderson-Gill Survival Models and Adjusted HRs for Antibiotic Use in Patients Aged (A) < 18 Years and (B) ≥ 18 Years
  2. aUrgent care center’s generally see patients on a first-come, first-serve basis for issues that require immediate attention but are not serious enough to warrant an emergency department visit
  3. bAnderson and Gill’s Cox Regression Model Counting process using PROC PHREG (Reference)
  4. cAdjusted for all variables in the table as well as patient’s sex, region, health plan, and calendar year. P-values< 0.0001 for all covariates except for p = 0.0031 for ED in patients < 18
  5. CI confidence interval, ED emergency department, HR hazard ratio, NAAT nucleic acid amplification testing, RADT rapid antigen detection test