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Table 2 Clinical data of patients with infective endocarditis caused by S. mitis, S. oralis, S. tigurinus and other viridans group streptococci, Spain, 2008–2016

From: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Streptococcus tigurinus endocarditis

  S. mitis (n = 16) S. oralis (n = 28) S. tigurinus (n = 17) Other VGS (n = 13)
Demographics
 Age in years: average ± SD (range) 58.4 ± 17.5 (35–94) 60.0 ± 16.7 (32–86) 66.7 ± 17.2 (19–87) 61.2 ± 13.9 (28–80)
 Female/Male 2/14 4/24 6/11 5/8
Underlying conditions
 Diabetes mellitus 2 2 0 0
 Renal insufficiency 0 1 2 1
 Pulmonary disease 3 2 3 1
 Neoplasm 2 2 3 1
 HIV infection 0 3 0 1
Risk factors
 Previous infective endocarditis 2 5 2 1
 Heart failure 1 4 4 2
 Atrial fibrillation 3 4 2 1
Site of acquisition
 Nosocomial 0 0 0 0
 Community -acquired 15 27 16 12
 Health care-related 1 1 1 1
Symptoms at admission
Affected valve
 Aortic 6 14 7 7
 Mitral 6 9 6 2
 Aortic + mitral 2 3 2 2
 Tricuspid 1 0 0 0
 Tricuspid + mitral 0 0 0 1
 Aortic + tricuspid + mitral 0 1 0 0
 Pulmonary 1 0 0 0
 Ductus arteriosus 0 0 0 1
 Not determined 0 1 2 0
Presentation
 Fever> 38 °C 16 23 13/16a 11
 Splinter hemorrhages 1 0 0 2
 Osler nodes 0 0 0 1
 Janeway lesions 1 0 0 1
 New murmur 3 15 5/16 8
 Worsening of old murmur 0 4/24 1/15 0
 Protein C reactive: average ± SD (range) 74.2 ± 41.5 (13–168) 55.7 ± 45.6 (1–138) 52.3 ± 96.4 (3–356) 40.8 ± 42.7 (3–101)
 Elevated Rheumatoid factor 0/2 4/11 1/4 2/4
Vegetations
 Not found 6 6 6 4
 Aortic 4 10 6 5
 Mitral 3 7 3 1
 Tricuspid 1 0 0 0
 Aortic + mitral 1 5 2 2
 Mitral + tricuspid 0 0 0 1
 Chordae tendinae 1 0 0 0
Intracardiac complications
 Perforation 2 4 3 3
 Abscess 1 4 1 2
 Pseudoaneurysm 0 1 0 1
 Pseudoaneurysm & perforation 0 2 0 0
 NC 0 1 0 2
Clinical course
 Embolism 1 6/27a 5/16a 4
 New heart failure 1 12/27a 5 4
 Persistent bacteraemia 1 0 0 1
Surgery
 Indicated 5 19/27a 9 7
 Performed 5 18/27a 6 6
Criteria for surgeryb
 Cardiac insufficiency 2 9 2 3
 Early prosthetic IE 0 1 0 0
 Late prosthetic IE 1 2 0 0
 Valve insufficiency 3 10 3 4
 Embolisms 0 1 0 1
 Others 1 5 3 1
Outcome
 Days hospital stay: average ± SD (range) 32.4 ± 19.3 (9–85) 31.0 ± 21.8 (3–106) 29.3 ± 17.9 (5–74) 29.9 ± 16.3 (6–53)
 In- hospital mortality 0 4 2 2
 1-year mortalityc 0/14 3/22 2/15 1/8
 Recurrence 0 2 2 0
Antibiotic treatment
 Beta-lactams alone 6 9 6 5
 Beta-lactams + gentamicin 8 12 7 6
 Other combinations 2 7 4 2
  1. aDenominator adjusted to patients with data available
  2. bSome patients had more than one criteria for surgery
  3. cExcluding patents died at hospital