Skip to main content

Table 1 Socio-demographic and baseline clinical characteristic of adult HIV-positive patients, Southeast Ethiopia, 2015–2017

From: Factors associated with first-line antiretroviral treatment failure in adult HIV-positive patients: a case-control study from Ethiopia

Variables Total (N = 273) Patients with ART failure (Cases) (N = 91) Patients without ART failure (Controls) (N = 182)
Gender-male 149 (55%) 52 (19%) 97 (36%)
Median age in years (IQR) 40 (11) 39 (10) 40 (12)
Religion
 Orthodox Christian 187 (69%) 62 (23%) 125 (46%)
 Muslim 160 (21%) 20 (7%) 37 (14%)
 Protestant 27 (10%) 9 (3%) 18 (7%)
 Others 2 (1%) 0 (0%) 2 (1%)
Marital status
 Married 160 (59%) 47 (17%) 113 (41%)
 Not married 113 (41%) 44 (16%) 69 (25%)
Family size
  ≤ 5 family members 217 (80%) 76 (28%) 141 (52%)
  > 5 family members 54 (20%) 13 (5%) 41 (15%)
Educational status
 Illiterate 39 (14%) 12 (4%) 27 (10%)
 Literate 234 (86%) 79 (29%) 155 (57%)
Employment
 Employed 267 (98%) 87 (32%) 180 (66%)
 Unemployed 6 (2%) 4 (1%) 2 (1%)
Residence area
 Rural 67 (25%) 28 (10%) 39 (14%)
 Urban 206 (76%) 63 (23%) 143 (52%)
Khat** chewing
 Yes 10 (4%) 4 (4%) 6 (3%)
 No 263 (96%) 87 (96%) 176 (97%)
Alcohol use
 Yes 7 (3%) 1 (1%) 6 (3%)
 No 266 (97%) 90 (99%) 176 (97%)
Smoke cigarettes
 Yes 6 (2%) 3 (3%) 3 (2%)
 No 267 (98%) 88 (97%) 179 (98%)
Main diet
 Wheat or barley 40 (15%) 18 (20%) 22 (12%)
 Teff 165 (60%) 54 (60%) 111 (61%)
 Others 68 (25%) 19 (20%) 49 (27%)
Poor drug absorption
 Main diet wheat or barley with diarrhea 3 (1%) 3 (3%) 0 (0%)
 Main diet wheat or barley without diarrhea 37 (14%) 15 (16%) 22 (12%)
Duration on ART median in months (IQR) 69 (41) 64 (39) 72 (36)
Baseline CD4 lymphocyte count
  < 50 cells/mm3 33 (12%) 20 (22%) 13 (7%)
  ≥ 50 cells/mm3 240 (88%) 71 (78%) 169 (93%)
Baseline WHO HIV stage
 Stage 1 26 (10%) 8 (9%) 18 (10%)
 Stage 2 93 (34%) 22 (24%) 71 (39%)
 Stage 3 140 (51%) 52 (57%) 88 (48%)
 Stage 4 14 (5%) 9 (10%) 5 (3%)
ART regimen
 AZT based 130 (48%) 57 (63%) 96 (53%)
 TDF based 143 (52%) 34 (37%) 86 (47%)
TB treatment while taking ART
 Never 231 (85%) 58 (64%) 173 (95%)
 Once 33 (12%) 26 (28%) 7 (4%)
 Two times 8 (3%) 6 (7%) 2 (1%)
 Three or more 1 (0%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%)
 Never discontinued ART 212 (78%) 49 (54%) 163 (90%)
Discontinued ART (by duration) 61 (22%) 42 (46%) 19 (10%)
  <  1 month 32 (12%) 23 (25%) 9 (5%)
  >  1 month 29 (10%) 19 (21%) 10 (5%)
Missed ART follow-up
 Never 233 (85%) 70 (77%) 163 (89.5%)
 Sometimes 32 (12%) 14 (15%) 18 (10%)
 Often 8 (3%) 7 (8%) 1 (0.5%)
Repeated or persistent diarrhea
 Yes 24 (9%) 16 (18%) 8 (4%)
 No 249 (91%) 75 (82%) 174 (96%)
Psychiatric illness
 Yes 10 (4%) 6 (7%) 4 (2%)
 No 263 (96%) 85 (93%) 178 (98%)
Dyspepsia
 Yes 82 (30%) 31 (34%) 51 (28%)
 No 191 (70%) 60 (66%) 131 (72%)
Diabetic
 Yes 1 (0.4%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%)
 No 272 (99.6%) 90 (99%) 182 (100%)
Hypertensive
 Yes 3 (1%) 0 (0%) 3 (2%)
 No 270 (99%) 91 (100%) 179 (98%)
Stool H. pylori antigen positive
 Yes 64 (23%) 18 (20%) 46 (25%)
 No 209 (77%) 73 (80%) 136 (75%)
HBsAg positive
 Yes 12 (4%) 3 (3%) 9 (5%)
 No 261 (96%) 88 (97%) 173 (95%)
Anti-HCV positive
 Yes 5 (2%) 1 (1%) 4 (2%)
 No 268 (98%) 90 (99%) 174 (96%)
VRDL positive
 Yes 56 (20%) 13 (14%) 43 (24%)
 No 217 (80%) 78 (86%) 139 (76%)
  1. Note: ART: Antiretroviral Therapy; AZT: Azidothymidine (Zidovudine); HCV: Hepatitis C virus; H. pylori: Helicobacter pylori; HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen; IQR: interquartile range; TDF: Tenofovir; TB: tuberculosis; VDRL: Venereal disease research laboratory; WHO: World Health Organization. *Teff (Eragrostis tef) is a gluten-free cereal traditionally grown in Ethiopia [25]. **Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula which contains psychoactive substances that have a high abuse potential [26]