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Table 1 Epidemiological, demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by gram-negative bacteria in tertiary referral hospital in Salvador, Brazil (n = 143)

From: Bloodstream infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features

Characteristics MDR
n (%)
n = 41 (28.7)
Non-MDR
n (%)
n = 102 (71.3)
p-value OR (95% CI)
Demographic data
 Male sex 31 (75.6) 57 (55.9) 0.03 2.45 (1.09–5.52)
 Age groups (years), median (1 qt–3 qt) 63 (51–72) 57 (38–69) 0.03+
 0–15 0 (0.0) 6 (5.9) 0.12
 16–30 4 (9.8) 11 (10.8) 0.56 0.89 (0.26–2.99)
 31–59 11 (26.8) 38 (37.3) 0.23 0.61 (0.28–1.37)
 ≥60 26 (63.4) 47 (46.1) 0.06 2.02 (0.96–4.27)
Comorbidities
 Charlson score, median (1 qt–3 qt) (n = 134)* 2.5 (2–4) 2 (2–3) 0.10
 ≥2 (n = 134) 20 (50.0) 39 (41.5) 0.37 1.41 (0.67–2.97)
 Congestive heart failure (n = 134) 3 (7.5) 5 (5.3) 0.45 1.44 (0.33–6.35)
 Cerebrovascular disease (n = 134) 5 (12.5) 11 (11.7) 0.55 1.08 (0.35–3.33)
 Liver disease 7 (17.5) 5 (5.3) 0.02 3.78 (1.12–12.73)
 Kidney disease 6 (15.0) 21 (22.3) 0.33 0.61 (0.23–1.66)
 History of malignancy 16 (40.0) 42 (44.7) 0.62 0.82 (0.39–1.76)
 Metastatic disease 7 (17.5) 16 (17.0) 0.95 1.03 (0.39–2.75)
 HIV/AIDS 1 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 0.12
 Previous antimicrobial use (n = 80) 29 (70.7) 51 (50.0) 0.02 2.41 (1.11–5.25)
 Prophylactic 8 (19.5) 21 (20.6) 0.88 0.93 (0.37–2.32)
 Therapeutic 26 (63.4) 43 (42.2) 0.02 2.37 (1.12–5.02)
Clinical information
 Hospitalized in prior 6 months (n = 140) 26 (65.0) 54 (54.0) 0.24 1.58 (0.74–3.38)
 Long hospital stay (> 14 days) 30 (73.2) 70 (68.6) 0.59 1.2 (0.55–2.79)
 Users of Health Insurance 31 (75.6) 73 (71.6) 0.62 1.23 (0.54–2.94)
Type of BSI
 Primary 24 (58.5) 56 (54.9) 0.69 1.16 (0.56–2.41)
 Secondary (n = 63) 17 (41.5) 46 (45.1) 0.69 1.16 (0.56–2.41)
 Urinary tract (n = 29) 7 (41.2) 22 (45.8) 0.74 0.82 (0.27–2.53)
 Respiratory tract (n = 17) 5 (29.4) 12 (25.0) 0.72 1.25 (0.37–4.28)
 Others (n = 19) 5 (29.4) 14 (29.2) 0.98 1.02 (0.30–3.41)
Location of acquisition
 Community-associated (n = 6) 1 (2.4) 5 (4.9) 0.45 0.48 (0.05–4.28)
 Community-onset, healthcare associated (n = 44) 11 (26.8) 33 (32.4) 0.51 0.76 (0.34–1.71)
 Hospital-onset, healthcare associated (n = 93) 29 (70.7) 64 (62.7) 0.36 1.43 (0.65–3.14)
Organisms (n = 170)**
Escherichia coli (n = 50) 12 (24.5) 38 (31.4) 0.37 0.70 (0.33–1.50)
Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 50) 27 (55.1) 23 (19.0) <0.001 5.23 (2.53–0.77)
Serratia marcescens (n = 15) 1 (2.0) 14 (11.6) 0.04 0.15 (0.02–1.24)
Enterobacter cloacae (n = 13) 3 (6.1) 10 (8.3) 0.45 0.72 (0.19–2.75)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 12) 2 (4.1) 10 (8.3) 0.28 0.47 (0.09–2.24)
Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6) 4 (8.2) 2 (1.7) 0.06 5.29 (0.93–9.88)
 Others*** (n = 24) 0 (0) 24 (19.8) <0.001
Polymicrobial BSI (n = 22)Ω 9 (18.4) 13 (10.7) 0.18 1.87 (0.74–4.71)
  1. (+) Mann-Whitney U Test; (−) Not calculated; (*) Of the 143 patients, 134 had comorbidities according to their Charlson’s score. Regarding diabetes, diabetes with any organ demage, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, connective tissue disease, peptic ulcer, hemiplegia or paraplegia and HIV/AIDS data are not shown since the number of patients with those comorbidities were limited (n < 5). None of the mentioned illnesses were risk or protective factor for MDR infection; (**) considering all isolates recovered; (***) Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 4), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 1), Citrobacter koseri (n = 1), Elizabethkingia meningoseptica (n = 1), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 1), Moraxella osloensis (n = 1), Proteus mirabilis (n = 4), Pseudomonas putida (n = 1), Salmonella spp.(n = 1), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (n = 1), and Stenotrophomonas malthophilia (n = 6); (Ω) in the study period 11 polymicrobial episodes were identified, and they involved 22 microbial isolates