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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of PLWH in care at sites across the United States overall and by anemia statusa

From: Anemia risk factors among people living with HIV across the United States in the current treatment era: a clinical cohort study

Participant characteristicsAll participants (N = 15,126)Developed anemia during follow-up (n = 1086)Developed severe anemia during follow-up (n = 465)
Age (median, IQR)44 (35–51)46 (39–53)46 (39–53)
Female2620 (17)303 (28)156 (34)
Race/ethnicity
 White6712 (44)411 (38)148 (32)
 Black5560 (37)529 (49)243 (52)
 Hispanic2145 (14)108 (10)56 (12)
 Other/missing709 (5)38 (3)18 (4)
Years in CNICS at baseline (median, IQR)1.1 (0.5–6.0)2.2 (0.5–7.0)3.0 (0.5–7.7)
Viral load ≥400 copies/ml3314 (22)338 (31)170 (37)
CD4 count (cells/mm3)
  < 100777 (5)107 (10)78 (17)
 100–1991236 (8)99 (9)64 (14)
 200–3492686 (18)219 (20)122 (26)
 350–4993323 (22)233 (22)79 (17)
  ≥ 5007104 (47)428 (39)122 (26)
Hepatitis C virus coinfection2556 (17)321 (30)146 (31)
Kidney function (eGFR)
  < 30164 (1)25 (2)23 (5)
 30–59620 (4)51 (5)34 (7)
  ≥ 6014,342 (95)1010 (93)408 (88)
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 18.5352 (2)24 (2)20 (4)
 18.5 to < 25.06494 (43)472 (44)207 (44)
 25.0 to < 30.05199 (34)339 (31)128 (28)
  ≥ 30.03081 (21)251 (23)110 (24)
ART use12,070 (80)821 (76)351 (75)
MCV (fL)91 (87–95)91 (86–96)90 (85–96)
Smoking status
 Never6211 (41)408 (38)188 (41)
 Former3492 (23)195 (18)80 (17)
 Current5423 (36)483 (44)197 (42)
Hazardous alcohol useb4239 (28)244 (22)110 (24)
Illicit drug usec2283 (15)165 (15)64 (14)
  1. a Baseline was defined as the earliest date during January 1, 2010- March 31, 2018 that a person had 6+ months in CNICS care
  2. b Hazardous alcohol use defined a score of ≥4 for women or ≥ 5 for men on the AUDIT-C scale
  3. c Use of cocaine/crack, methamphetamines/crystal, and/or illicit opioids
  4. Abbreviations: ART antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, MCV mean corpuscular volume PLWH people living with HIV