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Table 2 Factors associated with developing anemia or severe anemia in multivariable adjusted analyses among those free of anemia (n = 12,249) or among those free of severe anemia (n = 14,301) at baseline

From: Anemia risk factors among people living with HIV across the United States in the current treatment era: a clinical cohort study

Participant characteristicsAnemia
n = 12,249
Hazard ratio (95%CI)
Severe anemia
n = 14,301
Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Age per 10 years1.11 (1.04, 1.18)1.05 (0.95, 1.16)
Female (ref male)2.45 (2.12, 2.82)2.09 (1.69, 2.58)
Race/ethnicity (ref white)
 Black1.19 (1.03, 1.39)0.83 (0.65, 1.05)
 Hispanic0.90 (0.72, 1.13)1.06 (0.76, 1.47)
 Other/missing0.99 (0.71, 1.39)1.13 (0.69, 1.86)
Hepatitis C virus coinfection1.79 (1.56, 2.05)1.62 (1.31, 1.99)
CD4 cell count (cells/mm3) (ref ≥500)
 350–4991.38 (1.16, 1.65)2.23 (1.68, 2.97)
 200–3491.67 (1.39, 2.02)2.39 (1.78, 3.22)
 100–1992.83 (2.28, 3.62)3.89 (2.77, 5.45)
  < 1008.40 (6.85, 10.51)15.53 (11.56, 20.92)
Viral load ≥400 copies/ml1.43 (1.23, 1.64)1.86 (1.48, 2.34)
Kidney function (eGFR) (ref > 60)
 30–602.35 (1.91, 2.89)2.67 (1.97, 3.63)
  < 3017.84 (13.94, 24.02)23.01 (17.85, 29.68)
ART use0.92 (0.80, 1.05)1.00 (0.81, 1.23)
BMI (ref 18.5- < 25)
  < 18.50.89 (0.59, 1.32)1.23 (0.77, 1.96)
 25.0 to < 30.00.88 (0.77, 1.02)0.73 (0.58, 0.91)
  ≥ 30.01.02 (0.87, 1.20)0.92 (0.72, 1.17)
Smoking status (ref never)
 Former0.89 (0.75, 1.06)0.82 (0.63, 1.07)
 Current1.08 (0.94, 1.25)0.90 (0.72, 1.12)
Hazardous alcohol usea0.93 (0.81, 1.06)1.07 (0.87, 1.31)
Illicit drug useb0.99 (0.86, 1.14)0.99 (0.77, 1.21)
  1. a Hazardous alcohol use defined a score of ≥4 for women or ≥ 5 for men on the AUDIT-C scale
  2. b Use of cocaine/crack, methamphetamines/crystal, and/or illicit opioids
  3. Abbreviations: ART: antiretroviral therapy; BMI: body mass index; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate