Skip to main content

Table 3 Factors associated with developing chronic anemia in analyses among those without anemia at baseline; n = 12,249

From: Anemia risk factors among people living with HIV across the United States in the current treatment era: a clinical cohort study

Participant characteristicsHazard ratio95% CI
Age per 10 years1.181.04, 1.34
Female (ref male)3.252.48, 4.27
Race/ethnicity (ref white)
 Black1.961.43, 2.68
 Hispanic1.290.82, 2.04
 Other/missing1.120.54, 2.33
Hepatitis C virus coinfection1.761.32, 2.36
CD4 cell count (cells/mm3) (ref ≥500)
 350–4991.100.77, 1.56
 200–3491.931.40, 2.67
 100–1991.831.17, 2.88
  < 1004.112.67, 6.33
Viral load ≥400 copies/ml1.861.48, 2.34
Kidney function (eGFR) (ref > 60)
 30–601.310.72, 2.37
  < 305.402.35, 12.42
ART use0.990.73, 1.35
BMI (ref 18.5- < 25)
  < 18.50.750.31, 1.85
 25.0 to < 30.00.850.64, 1.14
  ≥ 30.00.820.59, 1.15
Self-reported smoking (ref never)
 Former0.820.57, 1.16
 Current0.930.70, 1.24
Hazardous alcohol usea0.860.66, 1.12
Illicit drug useb0.870.64, 1.18
  1. a Hazardous alcohol use defined a score of ≥4 for women or ≥ 5 for men on the AUDIT-C scale
  2. b Use of cocaine/crack, methamphetamines/crystal, and/or illicit opioids
  3. Abbreviations: ART antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate