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Table 4 Characteristics associated with hemoglobin level over follow-up time in analyses (linear mixed-effect model); N = 15,126

From: Anemia risk factors among people living with HIV across the United States in the current treatment era: a clinical cohort study

Participant characteristicsCoeffa95% CIP-value
Age per 10 years− 0.01− 0.01, − 0.01< 0.001
Female (ref male)−1.68− 1.74, − 1.62< 0.001
Race/ethnicity (ref white)
 Black−0.75− 0.80, − 0.70< 0.001
 Hispanic− 0.15− 0.21, − 0.08< 0.001
 Other/missing−0.13− 0.23, − 0.030.011
Hepatitis C virus coinfection− 0.21−0.25, − 0.16< 0.001
CD4 cell count (cells/mm3) (ref ≥500)
 350–499−0.18− 0.19, − 0.16< 0.001
 200–349−0.39− 0.41, − 0.37< 0.001
 100–199−0.81− 0.83, − 0.78< 0.001
  < 100−1.49− 1.52, − 1.46< 0.001
Viral load ≥400 copies/ml−0.09− 0.11, − 0.07< 0.001
Kidney function (eGFR) (ref > 60)
 30–60− 0.15−0.16, − 0.13< 0.001
  < 30−1.11− 1.15, − 1.07< 0.001
ART use− 0.03−0.04, − 0.01< 0.001
BMI (ref 18.5- < 25)
  < 18.5−0.24− 0.37, − 0.100.001
 25.0 to < 30.00.240.19, 0.29< 0.001
  ≥ 30.00.160.10, 0.22< 0.001
Self-reported smoking (ref never)
 Former0.05−0.01, 0.110.055
 Current0.150.10, 0.20< 0.001
Self-reported hazardous alcohol useb0.130.09, 0.18< 0.001
Self-reported illicit drug usec−0.19−0.24, − 0.14< 0.001
  1. aCoefficient is the mean difference per year in hemoglobin (g/dL) for each variable after adjustment for all other covariates presented in the table
  2. b Hazardous alcohol use defined a score of ≥4 for women or ≥ 5 for men on the AUDIT-C scale
  3. c Use of cocaine/crack, methamphetamines/crystal, and/or illicit opioids
  4. Abbreviations: ART antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate