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Table 1 Prevalence and determinants of virological failure on ART among PLWH

From: Prevalence and determinants of virological failure, genetic diversity and drug resistance among people living with HIV in a minority area in China: a population-based study

VariablesVL ≥ 1000 copies/mlTotal NORuORm
Virologic failure
n = 2156 (rate, n/N%)
Socio-demographics
Gender
  Female710 (36.90)19251.0(ref)1.0(ref)
  Male1446 (44.70)32321.39 (1.23–1.56)***1.25 (1.03–1.50)***
Age
  ≤ 15172 (48.86)3521.0 (Ref.) 
  15 ~ 401423 (41.45)34330.74 (0.59–0.92) *** 
  >40533 (40.94)13020.72 (0.57–0.92) ***
  Unknown28 (40.00)70 
Occupation
  Employed37 (34.91)1061.0 (Ref.) 
  Peasant1736 (41.85)41481.34 (0.90–2.01) 
  Students and children136 (46.74)2911.64 (1.03–2.60)**
  Unknown247 (40.36)612 
Current marital status
  Married1406 (41.80)33661.0 (Ref.) 
  Single428 (45.77)9341.18 (1.02–1.36) ** 
  Widowed or Divorced99 (35.87)2760.78 (0.60–1.01)*
  Unknown223 (38.38)581 
Ethnicity(0.00)   
  Yi2137 (41.70)51251.0 (Ref.) 
  Han and others19 (59.38)322.04 (1.01–4.15)**
Education level
  Illiteracy1339 (42.58)31451.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
  Primary school581 (40.77)14250.93 (0.82–1.05)*0.77 (0.66–0.89)**
  Secondary or above70 (38.67)1810.85 (0.63–1.16)0.69 (0.46–1.04)
  Unknown166 (40.89)406 
HIV transmission route
  Heterosexual behaviors715 (37.10)19271.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
  Drug injection747 (43.08)17341.28 (1.12–1.47)***1.12 (0.93–1.35)
  Heterosexual behaviors and drug injection325 (49.02)6631.63 (1.36–1.95) ***1.44 (1.15–1.82)**
  Mother to child163 (48.95)3331.63 (1.29–2.05) ***1.58 (1.21–2.08)**
  Others and unknown206 (41.20)500
The first CD4+counts, counts/ul
  ≤ 200346 (46.82)7391.0 (Ref.) 
  200 ~ 500986 (41.29)23880.80 (0.68–0.94)** 
  >500646 (40.68)15880.78 (0.65–0.93)**
  Unknown178 (40.27)442 
Stage of disease
  HIV784 (37.44)20941.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
  AIDS985 (44.49)22141.34 (1.19–1.51) ***1.35 (1.17–1.55)***
  Unknown387 (45.58)849 
HIV-related behaviors
Needle sharing
  Had never used illicit drugs and shared the needle1001 (39.03)25651.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
  Had shared needle for 1 ~ 4 times519 (43.43)11951.20 (1.04–1.38)**1.34 (1.09–1.65)**
  Had shared needle ≥5 times421 (48.00)8771.44 (1.24–1.68) ***1.52 (1.21–1.91)***
  Unknown215 (41.35)520 
Number of casual sexual partners
  01089 (42.51)25621.0 (Ref.) 
  1 ~ 4508 (38.99)13030.86 (0.75–0.99)** 
  ≥ 5344 (44.56)7721.09 (0.92–1.28)
  Unknown215 (41.35)520 
History of sexually transmitted diseases except for HIV
  Never1494 (42.53)35131.0 (Ref.) 
  Ever100 (38.46)2600.85 (0.65–1.09)
ART related information
Time of ART
  < 12304 (43.55)6981.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
  12 ~ 36682 (40.38)16890.88 (0.73–1.05)*0.72 (0.60–0.92)**
  > 36728 (40.00)18200.86 (0.72–1.03)*0.66 (0.53–0.83)***
  Unknown442 (46.53)950 
Initial regimen of ART
  TDF + 3TC + EFV/NVP1202 (39.97)30071.0 (Ref.) 
  AZT + 3TC + EFV/NVP444 (44.36)10011.20 (1.04–1.38)** 
  LPV/r + 3TC + AZT/TDF48 (33.33)1440.75 (0.53–1.07)* 
  Unknown462 (45.97)1005=
Replacement of ART regimen
  Never1535 (40.16)38221.0 (Ref.)1.0 (Ref.)
  Ever181 (46.65)3881.30 (1.06–1.61)**1.48 (1.12–1.96)**
  1. ORu univariate odds ratios, ORm multivariate odds ratios, CI confidence interval, TDF tenofovir, 3TC lamivudine, NVP nevirapine, EFV efavirenz, AZT Zidovudine, LPV/r fosamprenavir/ritonavir
  2. Variables with p < 0.2 in the univariate analysis as candidates were selected by a summary multiple logistic regression model
  3. *P value< 0.2; **P value< 0.05; ***P value< 0.001