|Authors and year||(n)||Study design||Study area||Major objectives of the study||Major findings|
|Takele et al. ||542||Retrospective cohort||Bichena Health center, Northwest, Ethiopia||To assess the time to lost follow up and its predictors among adult HIV positive people receiving ART||Prevalence of lost to follow up was 40.8% and incidence was 13.45/100 person years. Predictors of loss to follow up were:|
➢ Poor drug adherence AHR, 2.91 (2.08–4.09),
➢ TDF based base line regimen AHR, 1.63 (1.20–2.20),
➢ baseline regimen change AHR, 1.79 (1.08–2.97)
➢ Poor functional status AHR, 2.71 (2.01–3.66)
|Yigzaw et al. ||484||Retrospective cohort||Debre Markos referral hospital, Northwest, Ethiopia||To determine the incidence and predictors of loss to follow up among HIV positive adults on ART||About 17.36% of the individual were lost from ART follow-up. Rate of lost to follow-up was found to be 3.7 per 100 person- year’s observation and 30.95% occurred within the last years of follow up. The predictors for LTFU were:|
➢ ART Regimen [(AZT-3TC-NVP, AHR (95% CI = 2.79 (1.07, 7.23)),
➢ AZT-3TC-EFV, AHR (95% CI) = 3.14 (1.13, 8.08)
➢ TDF-3TC-EFV, AHR (95%CI = 9.3 (3.75, 23.8)],
➢ good ART adherence [AHR (95%CI) = 0.54 (0.3, 0.9)],
➢ WHO clinical stage IV [AHR: 95%CI = 2.75 (1.23–6.16)],
➢ Urban residence [AHR: 95%CI) = 0.6 (0.37–0.99),
➢ no cell phone [AHR: 95%CI) = 1.9 (1.14–3.4)]
➢ Age categories [(35–44 years (AHR(95%CI) = 0.32 (0.15–0.67)
➢ 45+ years (AHR (95%CI) =0.33 (0.13–0.83)].
|Seifu et al. ||1439||Retrospective cohort||Karamara general hospital, Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia||To measure incidence and predictors of loss to follow up among adult ART clients.||The incidence rate of loss to follow up in the cohort was 26.6% (95% CI; 18.1–29.6) per 100 person months. Factors associated with LTFU were;|
➢ Patients with male sex [HR: 2.1CI;(1.3–3.4)]
➢ patients whose next appointment weren’t recorded [HR: 1.2, 95% CI; (1.12–1.36)]
➢ patients who did not disclose their status to any one [HR: 2.8, 95% CI; (2.22–5.23)]
|Berheto et al. ||8009||Retrospective cohort||Four health centers and 2 hospitals in Southern, Ethiopia||To examine the effects of mental health training on HIV patient retention in care.||The incidence of attrition was 6.5 per 100 person-years|
➢ 21% higher in the unexposed group (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.1, 1.3)
➢ Retention in care was significantly higher in the mental health trained group. Independent risk factors for attrition were;
➢ WHO clinical staging III/IV
➢ Tuberculosis co-infection
➢ the male gender
➢ Poor functional status
|Assemie et al. ||602||Retrospective cohort||Pawi General Hospital, northwest Ethiopia||To assess incidence of lost-to-follow-up and its predictors among HIV-positive adults after initiation of ART||Cumulative incidence of lost-to-follow-up after ART initiation was high, 11.6 (95% CI 9.8–13.7) per 100 adult-years follow-up time. Independent significant predictors of lost to follow up were;|
➢ Being aged 15–28 years (AHR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.24–0.83)
➢ being on WHO clinical stage IV (AHR = 2.09; 95% CI 1.02–3.13)
➢ Receiving isoniazid preventive therapy (AHR = 0.11; 95% CI 0.06–0.18).
|Adewo et al. ||652||Retrospective cohort||Tepi General Hospital in South West Ethiopia.||to assess factors related with time to attrition||179 patients were lost to follow up and 37 patients died, contributing to an overall attrition of 33.13%. During the early six months the attrition rate was 89.8%.|
➢ Not starting cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (AHR = 1.51, 95% CI, 1.02–2.25)
➢ being co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) (AHR = 2.16, 95%CI, 1.35–3.45)
➢ living further than 10 km away from the hospital (AHR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.07–2.0)
➢ Not disclosed status of HIV (AHR = 3.04) were factors significantly associated with time to attrition.
|Gesesew et al. ||3607||Retrospective cohort||Jimma University|
Teaching Hospital, Western Ethiopia
|to assess prevalence, trend and risk factors for ART discontinuation||1090 (22.3%) had discontinued, 954 (19.5%) had transferred out, 300 (6.1%) had died, 2517 (51.4%) were alive and on ART. The trend of ART discontinuation showed an upward direction in the recent times and reached a peak, accounting for a magnitude of 10%, in 2004 and 2005.|
➢ Being a female (AOR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.7–2.8),
➢ Having an immunological failure (AOR = 2.3, 1.9–8.2)
➢ having tuberculosis/HIV co-infection (AOR = 1.5, 1.1–2.1)
➢ No previous history of HIV testing (AOR = 1.8, 1.4–2.9) were the risk factors for ART discontinuation.
|Bucciardini et al. ||1198||prospective cohort||In seven health facilities in Tigray in northern Ethiopia.||To determine predictors of patient attrition after 12 months in care||Kaplan–Meier estimates of retention in care were 83.9, 82.1 and 79.8% at 12, 18 and 24 months after starting ART, respectively. Attrition was mainly due to loss to follow-up (6.8%), transferred-out patients (9.5%) and mortality (4.4%). Factors associated with attrition were;|
➢ Male sex
➢ CD4 count < 200 cells/μL
➢ Type of health facility
|Wilhelmson et al. ||383||retrospective cohort||Adama Hospital, central Ethiopia||To determine retention in care among patients receiving second-line ART in a public hospital||At the end of study follow-up, 80.5% of patients remained in care (adults and adolescents 79.8%; children 85.7%). LTFU among adults and adolescents was associated with;|
➢ baseline CD4 cell count 100 cells/mm3 and
➢ First-line regimen failure that was not confirmed by HIV RNA testing.
|Tiruneh et al. ||222||retrospective cohort||Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia||To assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention||Thirty percent were LTFU by end of the study; the median time to LTFU was 1675 days. Higher risk of LTFU was associated with:|
➢ Baseline CD4 counts < 100 and > 200 cells/uL (HR = 1.62; 95%CI: 1.03–2.55; and HR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.15–3.70, compared with patients with baselineCD4 counts of 100–200 cells/uL.
➢ Bedridden at baseline (HR = 2.05; 95%CIs [1.11–3.80])
➢ Those with no or only primary education (HR = 1.50; 95%CIs [1.00–2.24]) were more likely to be LTFU.
➢ The qualitative data revealed that fear of stigma, care dissatisfaction, use of holy water, and economic constraints discouraged retention in care.
|Megerso et al. ||1248||Case control||Oromia, central and western Ethiopia||identifying correlates of loss to follow-up in ART among adult patients||factors which increased the risk of loss to follow-up in ART were;|
➢ Age 15–24 years [AOR], 19.82 95% CI: 6.80, 57.73);
➢ day laborers (AOR, 5.36; 95% [CI]: 3.23, 8.89),
➢ rural residents (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.89),
➢ WHO clinical stage IV (AOR, 2.29; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.62),
➢ Baseline CD4,350 cells/mL (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.13),
➢ suboptimal adherence of ART (AOR, 7.42; 95% CI: 1.87, 29.41)
|Mitiku et al. ||346||retrospective cohort||South and North Wollo, Oromia special zone, Northern Ethiopia||To determine levels and determinants of LFU under Option B+ among pregnant and breastfeeding women||Overall, 57 (16.5%) women were LTFU. The cumulative proportions of LTFU at 6, 12 and 24 months were 11.9, 15.7 and 22.6%, respectively.|
➢ The risk of LTFU was higher in younger women 18 to 24 years than 30 to 40 years: (AHR = 2.3; 95% (CI): 1.2 to 4.5)
➢ In those attending hospitals compared to those attending health centers (AHR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.2),
➢ In patients starting ART on the same day of diagnosis (AHR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.2)
➢ Missing CD4 cell counts at ART initiation (AHR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.4).
|Teshome et al. ||1173||retrospective cohort||22 hospitals and 25 health centers in southern Ethiopia.||compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients among patients in hospitals and health centers||24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that;|
➢ The longer gap between testing and initiation of ART,
➢ body mass index > 18.5 (AHR, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.38–0.91)
➢ advanced WHO clinical stage
➢ No Isoniazid prophylaxis (AHR, 1.90 (95% CI, 1.10–3.23)
➢ Age 26–39 (AHR, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.42–0.83)
➢ Secondary and above educational compared to no education status (AHR, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.39–0.67) were independently associated with LTFU.
➢ Moreover, baseline tuberculosis disease, poor functional status /bed ridden (AHR, 5.35 (95% CI, 1.67–17.1), and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death.
|Dessalegn et al. ||727||Case control||Wukro primary public hospital, Northern Ethiopia||to assess the magnitude and predictors of loss to follow-up among adult ART clients||11% of them were loss to follow up. Factors associated with LTF were:|
➢ Absence of bereavement concern AOR, 0.12 (0.046,0.30)
➢ not provided Isoniazide (INH) prophylaxis AOR, 3.04 (1.3, 7.3),
➢ The presence of side effects AOR, 12.34 (4.86, 31.35)
➢ Earlier (< 36 month) periods after ART AOR, 23.54 (8.87, 62.45)
|Melaku et al. ||93,418||retrospective cohort||Nation wide||To measure trend and treatment outcomes of HIV treatment||24% of patients were LTF before ART initiation. Among those initiating ART, attrition was 30% after 36 months, with most occurring within the first 6 months. Recorded death after ART initiation was 6.4 and 9.2% at 6 and 36 months, respectively, and decreased over time. Younger age, male gender, never being married, no formal education, low CD4+ cell count, and advanced WHO stage were associated with increased LTFU. Death was lower among younger adults, females, married individuals, those with higher CD4+ cell counts and lower WHO stage at ART initiation|
|Shaweno et al. ||626||retrospective cohort||Sheka Zonal Hospital, southern Ehtiopia||time when LTFU occurs and the associated factors among adults enrolled in pre-ART care||A total of 178 (28.4%) pre-ART patients were lost to Follow up, 93% of which occurred within the first six months. The independent predictors included:|
➢ Not having been started on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis [AHR] = 1.77, 95%, [CI], 1.12–2.79),
➢ baseline CD4 count of or above 350 cells/mm3 (AHR = 1.87, 95%CI, 1.02–3.45)
➢ An undisclosed HIV status (AHR = 3.04, 95%CI, 2.07–4.45).
|Mekuria et al. ||836||retrospective cohort||Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia||To describe the proportion of patients who are retained in HIV care and characterize predictors of attrition among HIV-infected adults receiving cART||Nearly 80% (95%CI: 76.7, 82.1) of the patients were retained in care in the first 3 and half years of antiretroviral therapy. After successfully tracing more than half of the LTFU patients, the updated one year retention in care estimate became 86% (95% CI: 83.41, 88.17%).|
➢ Severe immune deficiency at enrolment in care/or at ART initiation
➢ ‘bed-ridden’ or ‘ambulatory’ functional status at the start of ART predicted attrition.
|Bucciardini et al. ||563||Prospective cohort||Tigray, Northern Ethiopia||We report data on retention in care and its associated determinants||Overall 85.1% of their patients retained after one year from starting ART. Loss to follow-up (5.5%) and transfers to other health facilities (6.6) were the main determinant of attrition. The factors associated with retention were;|
➢ The type of health facilities,
➢ Active TB (HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.23–2.41)
➢ Male gender (AHR, 1.34 (955 CI, 1.04 to 1.7)4
|Assefa et al. ||11,371||retrospective cohort||three health facilities in Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia||To identify the level of long-term outcomes and their determinants in patients on ART in Ethiopia||Retention rates were 82, 74, and 72% at 24, 60, and 84 months on ART, respectively. Retention was associated with:|
➢ Male sex, adolescent age, marital status, advanced HIV disease, Illiteracy and peer-support services
➢ However, long-term retention was associated independently with:
➢ only male sex (AHR) 0.68 (0.56 to 0.77)]
➢ married patients [with AHR 0.62 (0.54 to 0.72)]
➢ peer-support services [with AHR 1.62 (1.58 to 1.66)]
|Berheto et al. ||2133||retrospective cohort||Mizan-Aman General Hospital in the Southern Ethiopia||aimed at determining the incidence and risk factors for LTFU in HIV patients on ART||Around 574 (26.7%) patients were defined as LTFU. The cumulative incidence of LTFU was 8.8 (95% CIs 8.1–9.6) per 1000 person months.|
➢ Patients with regimen substitution (HR 5.2; 95% CIs 3.6–7.3),
➢ Never took isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis (HR 3.7; 95% CIs 2.3–6.2),
➢ adolescent (HR 2.1; 95% CIs 1.3–3.4),
➢ Had a baseline CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 (HR 1.7, 95% CIs 1.3–2.2) were at higher risk of LTFU, WHO clinical stage III (HR 0.6; 95% CIs 0.4–0.9) and IV (HR 0.8; 95% CIs 0.6–1.0) patients at entry were less likely to be LTFU than clinical stage I patients
➢ Ambulatory and bedridden functional status were less affected by LTF than working groups ((HR, 0.4 (0.3,0.6) and HR, 0.7 (0.5, 0.9)) respectively
➢ There was no significant difference in risk of LTFU in males and females in this study
|Reepalu et al. ||678||Prospective cohort||Five health centers in Adama, Central Ethiopia||compared virological suppression (VS) rates, mortality, and retention in care in HIV-positive adults receiving care||No difference in retention in care between TB and non-TB patients was observed during follow-up; 25 (3.7%) patients died, and 17 (2.5%) were lost to follow-up (P = .30 and P = .83, respectively).|
|Tadesse et al. ||520||retrospective cohort||Tigray, Northern Ethiopia||To determine loss to follow up and its determinants||51 (9.8%) were loss giving a LTFU rate of 8.2 per 100 person- years. From these LTFU, 21 (41%) occurred within the first Six months of ART initiation. The independent predictors of LTFU of patient were:|
➢ being smear positive pulmonary TB [AHR (95% CI) = (2.05 (1.02, 4.12)],
➢ male gender [AHR (95%CI) = (2.73 (1.31, 5.66)],
➢ regiment AZT-3TC-NVP [AHR (95%CI) = (3.47 (1.02,11.83)] and
➢ Weight ≥ 60 kg [AHR (95% CI) = (3.47 (1.02, 11.83)].
|Wubshet et al. ||3012||Cross sectional||Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia||To determine the outcome and factors associated with LTF among HIV patients||Out of the 551 patients LTF, 486 (88.20%) were successfully tracked. Death was the most common reason accounted for 233 (47.94%) of the lost to follow-up. Reasons for non-deaths losses include: stopped antiretroviral treatment due to different reasons, 135 (53.36%), and relocation to another antiretroviral treatment program by self- transfer, 118 (46.64%). The rate of mortality in the first six months was 72.12 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 61.80–84.24) but this sharply decreased after 12 months to 7.92 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.44–14.41). Baseline clinical characteristics were strongly associated with outcome such as presence of tuberculosis infection at ART initiation, functional status (both ambulatory and bed ridden); CD4 cell count, 100 cells/mL, and WHO stage III and IV were strongly associated with mortality. On the other hand, male sex, bedridden functional status and residence outside Gondar town were significantly associated with non-death losses.|
|Asefa et al. ||236||Case control||Nekemte Hospital, western Ethiopia||to assess determinants of defaulting from antiretroviral treatment||After controlling for possible confounders,|
➢ living far from the facility (out of the town) (AOR = 4.1; 95%CI 1.86 to 9.42),
➢ dependent patients for source of food [AOR = 13.9; 95%CI 4.23 to 45.99],
➢ patients with mental status not at ease [AOR = 4.7; 95%CI 1.65 to 13.35],
➢ patients whose partners were HIV negative [AOR = 5.1; 95%CI 1.59 to 16.63],
➢ patients whose partners HIV status were unknown or not tested [AOR = 2.8; 95%CI 1.23 to 6.50]
➢ Patients that fear stigma [AOR = 8.3; 95%CI 2.88 to 23.83] were statistically significant association.
|Ahmed et al. ||1817||Case control||Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia||To investigate factors associated with pre-ART LTFU in Ethiopia.||factors were found to be independently associated with pre-ART LTFU:|
➢ male gender (AOR) = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.46)]
➢ higher baseline CD4 cell count (251–300 cells/μl [AOR = 2.64 (95% CI: 1.05, 6.65)]; 301–350 cells/μl [AOR = 5.21 (95% CI: 1.94, 13.99)], and > 350 cells/μl [AOR = 12.10 (95% CI: 6.33, 23.12)] compared to CD4 cell count of ≤200 cells/μl)
➢ Less advanced disease stage (WHO stage I [AOR = 2.81 (95% CI: 1.15, 6.91)] compared to WHO stage IV).
➢ Married patients [AOR = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.79)] had reduced odds of being LTFU.
➢ Patients whose next visit date was not documented on their medical chart [AOR = 241.39 (95% CI: 119.90, 485.97)]
|Wubshet et al. ||3012||Survey||Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia||to evaluate mortality, loss to follow up, and retention in care||61.4% of the patients were retained on treatment, 10.4% died, and 31.4% were lost to follow up. Fifty-six percent of the deaths and 46% of those lost to follow up occurred in the first year of treatment.|
➢ Male gender (AHR) 3.26; 95% CI: 2.19–4.88)
➢ CD4 count≤200 cells/μL (AHR 5.02; 95% CI: 2.03–12.39),
➢ tuberculosis (AHR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.11–4.02);
➢ bed-ridden functional status (AHR 12.88; 95% CI: 8.19–20.26) were predictors of mortality,
➢ Whereas only CD4 count < 200 cells/μL (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: (0.95, 1.88) and ambulatory functional status (HR = 1.65; 95% CI: (1.22, 2.23) were significantly associated with LTF.
|Assefa et al. ||37,466||retrospective cohort||Nationwide study||Intended to evaluate the outcomes of the ART services in 55 health facilities in Ethiopia.||Health facilities were able to retain 29,893 (80%), 20,079 (74%) and 5069 (68%) of their patients after 6, 12 and 24 months on ART, respectively. Retention rates vary across health facilities, ranging from 51 to 85% after 24 months on ART. Mortality was 5, 6 and 8% after 6, 12 and 24 months on ART. More than 79% of patients with available CD4-cell counts had a baseline CD4-cell counts less than 200 cells per micro-liter of blood.|
|Balcha et al. ||1709||Prospective cohort||Oromia region||to compare the outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) between hospital and health center levels||1044 (61%) remained alive and were on treatment after 24-month follow-up. In all, 835 (57%) of ART patients at hospitals and 209 (83%) at health centers were retained in the program. Of those who were alive and receiving ART, 79% of patients at health centers and 72% at hospitals were clinically or immunologically improving. In addition, 331 (23%) patients at hospitals were LFTU as compared to 24 (10%) of patients at health centers (relative risk [RR] at 95% confidence interval [CI]: .358 [.231–.555]). While 11% was the mortality rate at hospitals, 5% of patients at health centers also died (RR at 95% CI: .360 [.192–.673]).|
|Deribe et al. ||1270||Case control||Jimma University|
Teaching Hospital, western Ethiopia
|To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with defaulting from antiretroviral treatment (ART)||Of 1270 patients who started ART, 915 (72.0%) were active ART users and 355 (28.0%) had missed two or more clinical appointments. The latter comprised 173 (13.6%) defaulters, 101 (8.0%) who transferred out, 75 (5.9%) who died, and 6 (0.5%) who restarted ART. Reasons for defaulting were unclear in most cases. Reasons given were; loss of hope in medication, lack of food, Mental illness, holy water, no money for transport and other illnesses. Tracing was not successful because of incorrect address on the register in 61.6% of the cases.|
➢ Taking hard drugs (cocaine, cannabis and IV drugs)
➢ excessive alcohol consumption
➢ Being bedridden,
➢ living outside Jimma town
➢ Having an HIV negative or unknown HIV status partner were associated with defaulting ART.
|Abebe et al., ||640||Retrospective cohort||Debre Markos referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia||To determine Survival status of HIV positive adults on antiretroviral treatment||640 patient cards (379 alive and 261 death) adult HIV infected individuals were included in the study. General mean estimated survival time of patients after HAART initiation was improved.|
Significant predictors of mortality after HAART initiation were: Lower
baseline hemoglobin; Ambulatory and bed ridden functional status;
Poor ART adherence; Advanced WHO clinical stage; Absence of
recent TB prophylaxis; Unrecognized side effects; Persistent
unexplained chronic diarrhea (> 1 month)
|Ahmed et al. ||503||Retrospective cohort||Afar, north-east Ethiopia.||assessed the incidence of tuberculosis|
(TB) and its predictors among adults living with HIV/AIDS
|40 transfer out to other health facilities|
21 loss to follow up
258 did not develop TB
119 developed TB
|Mekonnen et al. ||1533||Retrospective cohort||Jimma hospital southwest Ethiopia||to assess reasons and predictors of regimen change from initial|
highly active antiretroviral therapy
|One in two (47.7%) adults changed their antiretroviral therapy regimen. Patients who were above the primary level of education [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.241 (95% CI 1.070–1.440)] and with human immunodeficiency virus/Tuberculosis co-infection [HR 1.405 (95% CI 1.156–1.708)] had the higher risk of regimen change than their comparator.|
|Chaka et al. ||248||Retrospective cohort||Adama, Central Ethiopia||to assess Option B+|
PMTCT service intervention outcomes.
|Loss to follow-up from the Option B+ continuum was 10 (4.2%).|
|Tadege ||1512||Retrospective cohort||Mettu Karl Hospital, southwest Ethiopia||to determine the major risk factors of antiretroviral therapy dropout||the risk of dropout for patients with primary education status was|
10.58% greater as compared to illiterate (p < 0.0110). The probability of dropout for patients with marital status separated was about 16.82% higher than those patients with marital status divorced (p < 0.0070). Being merchant, farmer and daily labour had a greater risk of dropout as compared to a housewife.
|Gezea et al. ||305||Retrospective cohort||Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia||aimed at investigating the incidence and predictors of LTFU of TB/HIV co-infected patients||45 of 305 (14.8%) of TB/HIV co-infected adults were LTFU with an incidence rate of 4.5 new LTFUs per 100 Person Years (PYs) and a median follow up time of 3.1 years (Interquartile Range (IQR): 0.8–5.3 Years). Hemoglobin level ≤ 11.0 g/dl (AHR = 2.660; 95%CI: 1.459–4.848), and any history of OI/s (AHR = 3.795; 95%CI: 1.165–12.364) were risk factors of LTFU. While, adverse drug events (AHR = 0.451; 95%CI: 0.216–0.941), TB treatment completion (AHR =0.121; 95% CI: 0.057–0.254), and being on Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) (AHR = 0.085; 95%CI: 0.012–0.628) had protective effect against LTFU.|
|Mekonnen et al. ||569||Retrospective cohort||Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia||to estimate the incidence of lost to follow up from ART care and identify the associated factors among HIV infected patients after first-line ART initiation||The overall incidence rate of lost to follow up was 12.26 per 100 person years (95% CI (10.61–14.18)). Being underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) (AHR, 1.52, 95% CI 1.01–2.28), jobless (AHR, 2.22, 95% CI 1.2–4.11), substance abuser (AHR, 1.84 95% CI 1.19–2.86), having sub-optimal adherence (fair/poor) (AHR 6.33, 95% CI (3.90–10.26)), not receiving isoniazid prophylaxis (AHR 2.47, 95% CI (1.36–4.48)), ambulatory functional status (AHR 1.94, 95% CI (1.23–3.06)), having opportunistic infections (AHR, 1.74 95% CI 1.11–2.72), having CD4 count 201–349 cells/μL (AHR 0.58, 95% CI (0.38–0.88)) were found to be significant predictors of lost to follow up from ART service.|
|Damitew et al. ||784||Retrospective cohort||Kharamara hospital, Somalia, Eastern Ethiopia||to assess survival and identify predictors of death in adult HIV-infected patients initiating ART||There were 87 (11.1%) deaths yielding an overall mortality rate of 5.15/100 PYO (95% CI: 4.73–6.37). The estimated mortality was 8.4, 9.8, 11.3, 12.7 and 14.1% at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months respectively. The independent predictors of death were single marital status (AHR: 2.31; 95%CI: 1.18–4.50), a bedridden functional status (AHR: 5.91; 95%CI: 2.87–12.16), advanced WHO stage (AHR: 7.36; 95%CI: 3.17–17.12), BMI < 18.5 Kg/m2 (AHR: 2.20; 95%CI: 1.18–4.09), CD4 count < 50 cells/μL (AHR: 2.70; 95%CI: 1.26–5.80), severe anemia (AHR: 4.57; 95%CI: 2.30–9.10), and TB co-infection (AHR: 2.30; 95%CI: 1.28–4.11)|
|Ayele et al. ||730||Retrospective cohort||Kembata and Hadiya zones||To assesses treatment outcomes and its determinants for HIV patients on ART||A total of 92 (12.6%) patients died, 106 (14.5%) were lost to follow-up, and 109 (15%) were transferred out. Sixty three (68%) deaths occurred in the first 6 months of treatment. The median survival time was 25 months with IQR [9, 43]. After adjustment for confounders, WHO clinical stage IV [HR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.19, 5.86], baseline CD4 lymphocyte counts of 201 cell/mm3 and 350 cell/mm3 [HR 0.20; 95% CI; 0.09–0.43], poor regimen adherence [HR 2.70 95% CI: 1.4096, 5.20], baseline hemoglobin level of 10 g/dl and above [HR 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.37] and baseline functional status of bedridden [HR 3.40; 95% CI: 1.61, 7.21] were associated with five year survival of HIV patients on ART.|
|Bezabh et al. ||337||Retrospective cohort||Bahrdar and Gondar, northwest Ethiopia||to determine patient, regimen, disease, patient-provider, and healthcare-related factors associated with adherence with ART||130 (75.6%) had ≥95% adherence. In the multivariate analyses, a higher baseline BMI (OR, 1.2; 95% CI 1.0, 1.4) and use of reminder devices (OR, 9.1; 95% CI 2.0, 41.6) remained positively associated with adherence|
|Awoke et al. ||2386||Retrospective cohort||Gondar, northwest Ethiopia||to determine and compare the long-term response of patients on nevirapine and efavirenz||70.58% were retain in clinical care|
302 were transfer out to other health facilities
230 were lost to follow up
170 were dead
|Mekuria et al. ||870||Retrospective cohort||Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia||To investigated virological suppression levels and its predictors of detectable viraemia||A total of 656 (75.4%) patients, who were alive, were retained in HIV care.|
Virological suppression levels can be high in an established ART programme in a resource-limited setting
|Assefa et al. ||20,099||Retrospective cohort||Nation wide||To reviews the performance of the ART program in Ethiopia||The ART program has been successful over several critical areas: (1) ART coverage improved from 4 to 54%; (2) the median CD4 count/mm3 at the time of ART initiation increased from 125 in 2005/ 6 to 231 in 2012/13; (3) retention in care after 12 months on ART has increased from 82 to 92%. In spite of these successes, important challenges also remain: (1) ART coverage is not equitable: among regions (5.6–93%), between children (25%) and adults (60%), and between female (54%) and male patients (69%); (2) retention in care is variable among regions (83–94%); and, (3) the shift to second-line ART is slow and low (0.58%).|
|Lifson et al. ||142||Prospective cohort||Arbaminch||The effects of community based support on patient retention||Community health support workers (CHSWs) provided HIV and health education, counseling/social support, and facilitated communication with the HIV clinics. With 7 deaths and 3 transfers, the 12-month retention rate was 94% (95% CI ¼ 89–97%), and no client was LTFU in the project. Between enrollment and 12 months, clients had significant (P < .001) improvements in HIV knowledge (17% increase), physical and mental quality of life (81 and 21% increase), internalized stigma (97% decrease), and perceived social support (24% increase).|
|Tadege ||600||Retrospective cohort||Illubabur||Time to death predictors||The risk of death for patients who lived with tuberculosis was about 2.872-fold times higher than those patients who were negative. Most of the HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy were died in a short period due to tuberculosis comorbidity, began with lower amount of CD4, being underweight, merchant, and being on WHO clinical stage IV|
|Telele et al. ||874||Prospective cohort||Nation wide||To predict first-line ART outcome after 6 and 12 months||The treatment failure rates were 23.3 and 33.9% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The odds of LTFU at month 6 increased with baseline functional disabilities, WHO stage III/IV, and CD4 cells < 50/μl. At month 6, 131/874 (15.0%) patients were dead (n = 62) or LTFU due to other reasons (n = 69).|
|Assesfa et al. ||334,819||Retrospective cohort||Nation wide||We aimed to analyze the ART program in Ethiopia.||While ART was being scaled up, retention was recognized to be insufficient. To improve retention, a second wave of interventions, related to programmatic, structural, socio-cultural, and patient information systems, have been implemented. Retention rate increased from|
77% in 2004/5 to 92% in 2012/13.
|Total number of participants 546,250|