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Table 1 Baseline profile of EndoAfrica-NWU participants

From: Vascular function and cardiovascular risk in a HIV infected and HIV free cohort of African ancestry: baseline profile, rationale and methods of the longitudinal EndoAfrica-NWU study

  HIV infected
n = 278
HIV uninfected
n = 104
P-value
Men, n (%) 74/278 (26.6) 32/104 (30.8) 0.42
Age (years) 42.7 ± 9.13 38.9 ± 11.7 0.004
Employed, n (%) 58/275 (21.1) 42/104 (40.4) < 0.001
Education, n (%)    0.037
None 6/274 (2.19) 3/104 (2.89)  
Primary 62/274 (22.6) 24/104 (23.1)  
Secondary 187/274 (68.3) 60/104 (57.7)  
Tertiary 19/274 (6.93) 17/104 (16.4)  
Anthropometry
 Waist circumference (cm) 84.7 ± 13.5 87.2 ± 15.6 0.15
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.2 ± 7.19 28.5 ± 8.24 0.013
Cardiovascular profile
 Hypertensive, n (%) a 90/278 (32.4) 44/104 (42.3) 0.070
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 ± 21.6 123 ± 18.8 0.32
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 84 ± 13.1 87 ± 14.8 0.052
 Heart rate (beats/min) 72 ± 13.0 71 ± 14.0 0.50
 Flow-mediated dilation (%) b 7.44 (6.77;8.12) 7.23 (6.10;8.36) 0.75
 Pulse wave velocity (m/s) b 7.81 (7.66;7.97) 7.72 (7.46;7.98) 0.54
Basic biochemical variables
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.88 (1.71;4.42) 2.71 (1.80;4.09) 0.047
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.00 (0.51;1.94) 0.89 (0.53;1.85) 0.010
 LDL (mmol/L) 1.62 (0.78;2.86) 1.60 (0.86;3.07) 0.82
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.78 (0.35;2.16) 0.68 (0.30;1.93) 0.040
 Glucose (mmol/L) 3.62 (2.75;5.11) 3.66 (2.67;7.61) 0.70
 Glycated haemoglobin (%) 5.46 (4.80;6.53) 5.74 (4.90;10.5) 0.017
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 2.48 (0.25;16.1) 1.85 (0.13;20.1) 0.063
 Gamma-glutamyltransferase (U/L) 51.2 (11.1;419) 22.3 (6.92;172) < 0.001
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 118 (92.5;147) 122 (97.9;151) 0.055
Health behaviours
 Tobacco use, n (%) 159/276 (57.6) 44/104 (42.3) 0.008
 Alcohol use, n (%) 185/275 (67.3) 61/104 (58.7) 0.12
 Physically active, n (%) 241/276 (87.3) 89/104 (85.6) 0.65
HIV related variables
 Duration of HIV > 5 years, n (%) 171/276 (62.0)
 CD4 count (cells/μL) 417 (68.8;1121)
 Viral load (copies/mL) 125 (10.0;93,433)
Medication use
 Antiretroviral therapy, n (%)
Never 9/278 (3.23)
Defaulted 47/278 (16.9)
Currently 222/278 (79.9)
Duration of ART > 5 years, n (%) 124/265 (46.8)
Anti-hypertensive, n (%) 50/278 (18.0) 26/104 (25.0) 0.13
Statins, n (%) 6/278 (2.16) 6/104 (5.77) 0.072
Anti-diabetic, n (%) 2/278 (0.72) 5/104 (4.81) 0.008
Anti-inflammatory, n (%) 0/278 (0.00) 1/104 (0.96) 0.10
  1. Data are expressed as arithmetic mean ± standard deviation, geometric mean (5th and 95th percentiles) or a percentage of N
  2. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ART antiretroviral therapy
  3. aSystolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive medication
  4. bAdjusted for systolic blood pressure and age, data expressed as mean (95%CI)