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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of gram-negative bacteraemia according to the results of follow-up blood culture (FUBC) and the eradicability of the source of infection

From: Predictive scoring models for persistent gram-negative bacteremia that reduce the need for follow-up blood cultures: a retrospective observational cohort study

  Eradicable source of infection Non-eradicable source of infection
Positive FUBC (n = 55) Negative FUBC (n = 411) p-value Positive FUBC (n = 66) Negative FUBC (n = 736) p-value
Age, years (± SD) 69.18 (± 12.19) 70.15 (± 13.35) 0.610 70.15 (± 14.25) 67.98 (± 14.88) 0.254
Sex (M) 29 (52.7%) 222 (54.0%) 0.886 26 (39.4%) 346 (47.0%) 0.235
Body weight (kg)
Comorbidity
 DM 19 (34.5%) 121 (29.4%) 0.531 25 (37.9%) 238 (32.3%) 0.358
 Liver cirrhosis 6 (10.9%) 31 (7.5%) 0.422 4 (6.1%) 54 (7.3%) 1.000
 ESRD on HD 4 (7.3%) 7 (1.7%) 0.031* 6 (9.1%) 18 (2.4%) 0.010*
 ESRD on PD 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) N.A. 2 (3.0%) 4 (.0.5%) 0.081
 Rheumatic disease 1 (1.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0.119 2 (3.0%) 15 (2.0%) 0.644
 Haematologic malignancy 4 (7.3%) 8 (2.0%) 0.042* 12 (18.2%) 109 (14.9%) 0.474
 Solid malignancy 17 (30.9%) 149 (36.4%) 0.457 16 (24.2%) 176 (24.0%) 0.966
 Solid organ transplantation 2 (3.6%) 9 (2.2%) 0.627 4 (6.1%) 19 (2.6%) 0.113
 Bone marrow transplantation 2 (3.6%) 1 (0.2%) 0.038* 2 (3.0%) 22 (3.0%) 1.000
 Intravascular device 75 (18.2%) 26 (47.3%) 0.000* 4 (6.1%) 19 (2.6%) 0.113
 Neutropenia 1 (1.8%) 8 (2.0%) 1.000 11 (16.7%) 105 (14.3%) 0.608
 High-dose steroid 1 (1.8%) 4 (1.0%) 0.468 4 (6.1%) 15 (2.0%) 0.063
Microorganism
Escherichia coli 22 (40.0%) 205 (49.9%) 0.197 36 (54.5%) 456 (62.0%) 0.291
Klebsiella pneumoniae 11 (20.0%) 91 (22.1%) 0.735 14 (21.2%) 133 (18.1%) 0.527
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5 (9.1%) 19 (4.6%) 0.185 5 (7.6%) 33 (4.5%) 0.231
 vAmpC-encoded Enterobacteriaceaea 7 (12.7%) 49 (11.9%) 1.000 4 (6.1%) 39 (5.3%) 0.774
Acinetobacter baumannii 1 (1.8%) 6 (1.5%) 0.587 2 (3.0%) 15 (2.0%) 0.644
 ESBL-producing 21 (38.2%) 84 (20.4%) 0.003* 39 (59.1%) 169 (23.0%) 0.000*
 Other gram-negative 9 (16.4%) 34 (8.3%) 0.052* 5 (7.6%) 59 (8.0%) 0.899
 PBSI 5 (9.1%) 32 (7.8%) 0.789 1 (1.5%) 12 (1.6%) 1.000
Hospital onset 22 (40.0%) 66 (16.1%) 0.000* 19 (28.8%) 216 (29.3%) 1.000
Site of infection
 Urinary genital tract 12 (21.8%) 80 (19.5%) 0.718 38 (57.6%) 372 (50.5%) 0.305
 Liver abscess 2 (3.6%) 39 (9.5%) 0.205 0 (0.0%) 13 (1.8%) 0.615
 Biliary infection 9 (16.4%) 218 (53.0%) 0.000* 1 (1.5%) 73 (9.9%) 0.024*
 Intra-abdominal 5 (9.1%) 38 (9.2%) 1.000 6 (9.1%) 85 (11.5%) 0.687
 Respiratory 1 (1.8%) 2 (0.5%) 0.315 7 (10.6%) 44 (6.0%) 0.180
 SSTI 3 (5.5%) 4 (1.0%) 0.039* 2 (3.0%) 4 (0.5%) 0.081
 Catheter-related 18 (32.1%) 22 (5.4%) 0.000* 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) N.A.
 Bone and joint infection 3 (5.5%) 2 (0.5%) 0.013* 1 (1.5%) 6 (0.8%) 0.453
 Cardiovascular 2 (3.6%) 1 (0.2%) 0.038* 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) N.A.
 CNS infection 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) N.A. 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.2%) 1.000
 Primary bacteraemia 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) N.A. 11 (16.7%) 131 (17.8%) 0.869
Inotropic requirement on the day of FUBC 24 (5.8%) 10 (18.2%) 0.003* 9 (13.6%) 53 (7.2%) 0.061
Unfavourable treatment response 30 (55.6%) 130 (32.5%) 0.001* 31 (48.4%) 215 (30.0%) 0.002*
qSOFA score (± SD) on the day of FUBC 1.29 (± 1.12) 0.52 (± 0.76) 0.000* 0.88 (± 0.95) 0.56 (± 0.88) 0.005*
SOFA score (± SD) on the day of FUBC 5.62 (± 4.48) 3.09 (± 2.93) 0.000* 3.79 (± 3.47) 2.90 (± 3.18) 0.036*
qSOFA score ≥ 2 on the day of FUBC 20 (36.4%) 45 (10.9%) 0.000* 16 (24.2%) 108 (14.7%) 0.039
Effective antibiotics before the day of FUBC 34 (61.8%) 350 (85.2%) 0.000* 27 (40.9%) 639 (86.8%) 0.000*
Adequate source control before the day of FUBC 13 (23.6%) 322 (78.3%) 0.000* N.A. N.A. N.A.
  1. SD Standard deviation, N.A. Not available, M Male, DM Diabetes mellitus, ESRD End-stage renal disease, HD Haemodialysis, PD Peritoneal dialysis, ESBL Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, PBSI Polymicrobial bloodstream infection, SSTI Skin and soft tissue infection, CNS Central nervous system
  2. aAmpC-encoded Enterobacteriaceae includes Serratia marcescens, Providencia stuartii, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., and Morganella morganii
  3. *p < 0.05