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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of enrolled patients with COVID-19 divided into severe and non-severe cases

From: A novel optical biosensor for the early diagnosis of sepsis and severe Covid-19: the PROUD study

  Severe (n = 12) Non-severe (n = 26) p-value
Age (years, mean ± SD) 68.1 ± 11.2 63.2 ± 18.5 0.405
Male gender, n (%) 8 (33.3) 16 (66.7) 1.00
APACHE II score (mean ± SD) 10.1 ± 3.6 8.2 ± 5.8 0.297
SOFA score (mean ± SD) 3.6 ± 1.4 1.5 ± 1.8 0.001
CCI score (mean ± SD) 3.2 ± 2 3.4 ± 2.7 0.804
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Type 2 diabetes mellitus 4 (44.4) 5 (55.6) 0.423
 Chronic heart failure 0 4 (100) 0.287
 Chronic renal disease 0 5 (100) 0.158
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2 (28.6) 5 (71.4) 1.00
 Solid malignancy 2 (40) 3 (60) 0.643
 Chemotherapy 2 (40) 3 (60) 0.643
 Dementia 1 (25) 3 (75) 1.00
 Atrial fibrillation 0 3 (100) 0.538
 Residency in long-term healthcare facility 0 3 (100) 0.538
 Previous intake of antibiotics 2 (12.5) 14 (87.5) 0.040
White blood cells (/mm3, mean ± SD) 9334 ± 2498 6194 ± 3578 0.010
Platelets (×  103 /mm3, mean ± SD) 252 ± 116 282 ± 140 0.530
INR (mean ± SD) 1.1 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.3 0.776
Creatinine (mg/dl, mean ± SD) 1.0 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 1.9 0.216
CRP (mg/l, median ± IQR) 63.8 ± 133.5 26.5 ± 41.6 0.006
PCT (ng/ml, median ± IQR) 0.1 ± 0.7 0.1 ± 0.1 0.814
pO2/FiO2 (mean ± SD) 211.7 ± 85.1 389.3 ± 98.6 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, CCI Charlson’s comorbidity index, CRP C-reactive protein, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, INR International normalized ratio, IQR inter-quartile range, PCT procalcitonin, pO2 partial oxygen pressure, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment