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Table 1 Descriptive statistics (n = 1031) and bivariate analysis

From: Factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis at a university health center

VariableVisit Count (%)Odds Ratio (95% CI)Bivariate
p-value
Date and Time
 visit date1028 (99.7%)0.99 (0.99-0.99)p < 0.001 **
 week day1028 (99.7%)range 0.64-1.28p = 0.63
 time of day1021 (99.0%)0.99 (0.99-0.99)p = 0.24
Patient Characteristics
 gender  p = 0.03*
  female (reference group)636 (61.7%)- 
  male390 (37.8%)1.34 (1.02-1.76) 
  not recorded5 (0.5%)- 
 race  p = 0.43
  white (reference group)594 (57.6%)- 
  multiple92 (8.9%)0.90 (0.55-1.44) 
  Asian50 (4.8%)0.97 (0.51-1.79) 
  black21 (2.0%)1.04 (0.38-2.54) 
  Hispanic6 (0.6%)- 
  international7 (0.7%)- 
  Pacific islander1 (0.1%)- 
  not recorded260 (25.2%)- 
 academic status  p = 0.27
  undergraduate student932 (90.4%)- 
  graduate student85 (8.2%)0.86 (0.52-1.39) 
  spouse/dependent3 (0.3%)- 
  not recorded11 (1.1%)- 
 height (inches)1013 (98.2%)1.04 (1.00-1.08)p = 0.02*
 weight (pounds)1016 (98.5%)1.00 (0.99-1.01)p = 0.09
Visit Characteristics
 providersee Fig 3range 0.05–4.63p < 0.001**
 days since onset (patient reported) ††1016 (98.5%)1.02 (1.01-1.03)p < 0.001**
 severity (patient reported)  p = 0.009*
  mild (reference group)61 (5.9%)- 
  moderate342 (33.2%)0.48 (0.27-0.86) 
  severe32 (3.1%)1.13 (0.46-2.70) 
  not recorded596 (57.8%)- 
 progression (patient reported)  p < 0.001**
  stable/no change (reference group)274 (26.6%)- 
  worsening317 (30.7%)2.27 (1.77-3.77) 
  improving108 (10.5%)1.06 (0.60-1.84) 
  not recorded332 (32.2%)- 
 antibiotics in past month40 (3.9%)0.46 (0.19-1.00)p = 0.07
Additional Diagnosis
 upper respiratory infection197 (19.1%)0.26 (0.16-0.39)p < 0.001**
 suspicious cough77 (7.5%)1.02 (0.61-1.67)p = 0.93
 allergic rhinitis32 (3.1%)0.51 (0.19-1.17)p = 0.14
 fever17 (1.6%)2.58 (0.98-6.92)p = 0.05
 viral syndrome13 (1.3%)--
 tonsillitis6 (0.6%)--
 influenza4 (0.4%)--
 mononucleosis3 (0.3%)--
Common Symptoms Recorded†
 throat symptoms
  sore throat402 (39.0%)1.42 (1.08-1.85)p = 0.01*
  painful swallowing130 (12.6%)0.58 (0.37-0.89)p = 0.02*
  hoarseness167 (16.2%)0.80 (0.55-1.56)p = 0.25
  swollen glands in neck112 (10.9%)1.08 (0.70-1.63)p = 0.73
 systemic symptoms
  headache244 (23.7%)0.79 (0.57-1.09)p = 0.15
  documented fever68 (6.6%)0.70 (0.42-1.17)p = 0.17
  fever symptoms (patient reported)255 (24.7%)0.94 (0.69-1.28)p = 0.71
  chills147 (14.2%)0.94 (0.65-1.37)p = 0.73
  sweats159 (15.4%)1.19 (0.82-1.75)p = 0.36
 nasal symptoms
  stuffy nose665 (64.5%)0.86 (0.66-1.14)p = 0.29
  sinus congestion344 (33.4%)0.73 (0.55-0.98)p = 0.03*
  clear nasal discharge215 (20.9%)0.71 (0.50-0.99)p = 0.04*
  purulent nasal discharge184 (17.8%)0.83 (0.58-1.19)p = 0.33
  post-nasal drip sensation390 (37.8%)0.93 (0.70-1.21)p = 0.59
  sinus pain79 (7.7%)1.69 (1.05-2.69)p = 0.03*
  sneezing101 (9.8%)0.39 (0.22-0.66)p < 0.001**
 pulmonary symptoms
  sleep disruption due to cough610 (59.2%)1.22 (0.93-1.59)p = 0.15
  sputum production638 (61.9%)0.98 (0.75-1.29)p = 0.91
  shortness of breath348 (33.8%)0.74 (0.56-0.97)p = 0.03*
  chest tightness277 (26.8%)0.94 (0.69-1.26)p = 0.67
  wheezing275 (26.7%)0.64 (0.48-0.86)p = 0.003*
  chest pain232 (22.5%)0.82 (0.60-1.12)p = 0.22
  paroxysms of cough315 (30.6%)0.98 (0.73-1.30)p = 0.87
 ear symptoms
  ear pain48 (4.7%)1.02 (0.53-1.88)p = 0.94
  ear pressure sensation122 (11.8%)0.89 (0.58-1.35)p = 0.60
  decreased hearing34 (3.3%)0.81 (0.35-1.69)p = 0.58
 GI symptoms
  loss of appetite129 (12.5%)0.82 (0.54-1.23)p = 0.34
  abdominal pain25 (2.4%)0.30 (0.07-0.87)p = 0.05
  post-tussive vomiting74 (7.2%)0.67 (0.41-1.09)p = 0.10
  nausea63 (6.1%)0.46 (0.22-0.86)p = 0.02*
  vomiting48 (4.6%)0.44 (0.19-0.89)p = 0.03*
  diarrhea34 (3.3%)1.24 (0.59-2.49)p = 0.56
 neuro-vascular symptoms
  lightheadedness47 (4.6%)1.29 (0.69-2.35)p = 0.41
Commonly Ordered Labs
 chest x-ray177 (17.2%)2.09 (1.50-2.90)p < 0.001**
 rapid strep screen31 (3.0%)0.65 (0.26-1.45)p = 0.32
 complete blood count85 (8.2%)1.40 (0.88-2.21)p = 0.15
 Monospot27 (2.6%)1.83 (0.83-3.95)p = 0.12
 influenza A + B16 (1.6%)0.32 (0.05-1.14)p = 0.13
Common Exam Findings†
 ear exam   
  tympanic membrane (TM)27 (2.6%)0.08 (0.004-0.40)p = 0.01*
 bulging
  TM retraction42 (4.1%)0.79 (0.38-1.55)p = 0.51
  visible fluid behind TM148 (14.3%)0.17 (0.09-0.29)p < 0.001**
  cerumen in canal29 (2.8%)0.46 (0.15-1.12)p = 0.12
 nose exam
  mucosal edema580 (56.2%)0.83 (0.63-1.08)p = 0.16
  mucosal erythema510 (49.5%)0.78 (0.59-1.01)p = 0.06
  nasal discharge324 (31.4%)1.59 (1.20-2.09)p = 0.001**
  maxillary sinus tenderness30 (2.9%)1.75 (0.83-3.64)p = 0.13
 throat exam
  erythema209 (20.3%)0.79 (0.56-1.10)p = 0.17
  lymphoid hyperplasia104 (10.1%)1.47 (0.96-2.22)p = 0.07
  post-nasal drip157 (15.2%)1.44 (1.00-2.04)p = 0.04*
tonsil exam
  surgically absent42 (4.1%)1.13 (0.57-2.14)p = 0.71
  erythema84 (8.1%)0.43 (0.23-0.74)p = 0.004**
  enlarged47 (4.5%)1.17 (0.62-2.32)p = 0.64
 lymphatics exam
  anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, tender53 (5.1%)1.93 (1.10-3.38)p = 0.02*
  anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, non-tender87 (8.4%)0.70 (0.41-1.14)p = 0.16
  posterior cervical lymphadenopathy, non-tender51 (4.9%)0.60 (0.29-1.16)p = 0.15
  anterior cervical lymphadenopathy99 (9.6%)3.05 (2.01-4.66)p < 0.001**
  posterior cervical lymphadenopathy26 (2.5%)1.00 (0.41-2.25)p = 0.10
 lung exam
  wheezing215 (20.9%)1.92 (1.40-2.61)p < 0.001**
  rales21 (2.0%)10.05 (3.69-35.18)p < 0.001**
  rhonchi223 (21.6%)2.33 (1.71-3.16)p < 0.001**
  percussion abnormality25 (2.4%)9.55 (3.83-28.91)p < 0.001**