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Table 3 Descriptive statistics (n = 1270) and bivariate analysis

From: Factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis at a university health center

Variable Visits Odds Ratio (95% CI) Bivariatep-value
Date and Time
 visit date 1267 (99.8%) 0.99 (0.99-0.99) p < 0.001 **
 week day 1267 (99.8%) range 0.60-1.40 p = 0.26
 time of day 1258 (99.0%) 0.99 (0.99-1.00) p = 0.61
Patient Characteristics
 gender    p = 0.07
  female (reference group) 788 (62.0%) -  
  male 477 (46.3%) 1.25 (0.98-1.60)  
  not recorded 5 (0.4%) -  
 race    p = 0.20
  white (reference group) 737 (58.0%) -  
  multiple 117 (9.2%) 0.76 (0.48-1.17)  
  Asian 61 (4.8%) 0.88 (0.49-1.54)  
  black 31 (2.4%) 1.00 (0.45-2.11)  
  Hispanic 7 (0.6%) -  
  international 8 (0.6%) -  
  Pacific islander 2 (0.1%) -  
  not recorded 307 (24.2%) -  
 academic status    p = 0.70
  undergraduate student (reference group) 1153 (90.8%) -  
  graduate student 101 (7.9%) 0.83 (0.52-1.30)  
  spouse/dependent 4 (0.3%) -  
  not recorded 12 (0.9%) -  
 height (inches) 1242 (97.8%) 1.03 (1.00-1.07) p = 0.04*
 weight (pounds) 1236 (97.3%) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) p = 0.15
Visit Characteristics
 provider 1254 (98.7%) range 0.07 -3.27 p < 0.001**
 onset duration (patient reported) 1250 (98.4%) 0.99 (0.99-1.00) p < 0.001**
 severity (patient reported)    p = 0.02*
  mild (reference group) 69 (5.4%) -  
  moderate 381 (30.0%) 0.54 (0.32-0.95)  
  severe 37 (2.9%) 1.20 (0.52-2.72)  
  not recorded 783 (61.6%) -  
 timing (patient reported)    p < 0.001**
  stable/no change (reference group) 322 (25.3%) -  
  worsening 370 (29.1%) 2.59 (1.84-3.65)  
  improving 176 (13.8%) 0.67 (0.40-1.09)  
  not recorded 402 (31.6%) -  
 antibiotics in past month 85 (6.7%) 0.44 (0.23-0.77) p = 0.006**
Additional Diagnosis
 URI 216 (17.0%) 0.30 (0.19-0.44) p < 0.001**
 suspicious cough 102 (8.0%) 1.30 (0.84-1.98) p = 0.22
 allergic rhinitis 38 (3.0%) 0.43 (0.16-0.96) p = 0.06
 fever 19 (1.5%) 2.13 (0.84-5.31) p = 0.10
 viral syndrome 15 (1.2%) - -
 tonsillitis 6 (0.4%) - -
 influenza 5 (0.4%) - -
 mononucleosis 7 (0.5%) - -
Common Symptoms Recorded†
 throat symptoms    
  sore throat 459 (36.1%) 1.45 (1.13-1.86) p = 0.003**
  painful swallowing 146 (11.5%) 0.60 (0.39-0.89) p = 0.01*
  hoarseness 186 (14.6%) 0.84 (0.59-1.18) p = 0.32
  swollen glands in neck 126 (9.9%) 1.19 (0.80-1.75) p = 0.39
 systemic symptoms
  headache 272 (21.4%) 0.88 (0.65-1.18) p = 0.40
  documented fever 73 (5.7%) 0.63 (0.39-1.04) p = 0.06
  fever symptoms (patient reported) 285 (22.4%) 1.10 (0.83-1.46) p = 0.51
  chills 164 (12.9%) 0.86 (0.60-1.22) p = 0.38
  sweats 182 (14.3%) 1.02 (0.73-1.45) p = 0.92
 nasal symptoms
  stuffy nose 782 (61.6%) 1.04 (0.81-1.33) p = 0.76
  sinus congestion 402 (39.0%) 0.83 (0.64-1.08) p = 0.16
  clear nasal discharge 251 (19.8%) 0.86 (0.63-1.16) p = 0.33
  purulent nasal discharge 212 (16.7%) 0.96 (0.69-1.32) p = 0.79
  post-nasal drip sensation 444 (35.0%) 1.10 (0.86-1.41) p = 0.46
  sinus pain 85 (6.7%) 1.79 (1.14-2.79) p = 0.01*
  sneezing 108 (8.5%) 0.47 (0.28-0.77) p = 0.004**
 pulmonary symptoms
  sleep disruption due to cough 710 (55.9%) 1.08 (0.85-1.37) p = 0.54
  sputum production 743 (58.5%) 0.94 (0.73-1.20) p = 0.61
  shortness of breath 412 (32.4%) 0.69 (0.53-0.88) p = 0.003**
  chest tightness 331 (26.1%) 0.82 (0.62-1.07) p = 0.14
  wheezing 340 (26.8%) 0.64 (0.49-0.84) p = 0.001**
  chest pain 269 (21.2%) 0.75 (0.56-0.99) p = 0.047*
  paroxysms of cough 362 (28.5%) 0.91 (0.70-1.18) p = 0.46
 ear symptoms
  ear pain 59 (4.6%) 1.03 (0.57-1.78) p = 0.93
  ear pressure sensation 143 (11.2%) 0.93 (0.63-1.36) p = 0.71
  decreased hearing 41 (3.2%) 0.96 (0.47-1.87) p = 0.92
 GI symptoms
  loss of appetite 146 (11.5%) 0.80 (0.53-1.17) p = 0.26
  abdominal pain 29 (2.3%) 0.26 (0.06-0.75) p = 0.03*
  post-tussive vomiting 85 (6.7%) 0.59 (0.38-0.92) p = 0.02*
  nausea 72 (5.7%) 0.50 (0.26-0.89) p = 0.02*
  vomiting 58 (4.6%) 0.73 (0.38-1.32) p = 0.32
  diarrhea 37 (2.9%) 1.27 (0.62-2.49) p = 0.49
 neuro-vascular symptoms
  lightheadedness 59 (4.6%) 1.30 (0.74-2.24) p = 0.33
Commonly Ordered Labs
 chest x-ray 223 (17.6%) 2.17 (1.61-2.91) p < 0.001**
 rapid strep screen 37 (2.9%) 0.54 (0.21-1.16) p = 0.14
 complete blood count 115 (9.0%) 1.38 (0.92-2.06) p = 0.11
 monospot 36 (2.8%) 1.33 (0.65-2.61) p = 0.41
 influenza A + B 19 (1.5%) 0.27 (0.04-0.95) p = 0.08
Common Exam Findings†
 ear exam
  tympanic membrane (TM) bulging 32 (2.5%) 0.07 (0.004-0.34) p = 0.01*
  TM retraction 48 (3.8%) 0.77 (0.38-1.46) p = 0.44
  visible fluid behind TM 173 (13.6%) 0.18 (0.10-0.30) p < 0.001**
  cerumen in canal 37 (2.9%) 0.64 (0.27-1.34) p = 0.26
 nose exam
  mucosal edema 707 (55.7%) 0.83 (0.65-1.06) p = 0.14
  mucosal erythema 606 (47.7%) 0.80 (0.63-1.02) p = 0.07
  nasal discharge 382 (30.1%) 1.58 (1.22-2.04) p < 0.001**
  maxillary sinus tenderness 35 (2.7%) 2.01 (1.01-3.95) p = 0.04*
 throat exam
  erythema 240 (18.9%) 0.76 (0.55-1.04) p = 0.09
  lymphoid hyperplasia 114 (9.0%) 1.59 (1.07-2.36) p = 0.02*
  post-nasal drip 181 (14.2%) 1.41 (1.01-1.95) p = 0.04*
 tonsil exam
  surgically absent 56 (4.4%) 0.93 (0.50-1.65) p = 0.81
  erythema 97 (7.6%) 0.47 (0.27-0.79) p = 0.006**
  enlarged 57 (4.5%) 1.10 (0.62-2.04) p = 0.74
 lymphatics exam
  anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, tender 64 (5.0%) 1.88 (1.12-3.12) p = 0.01*
  anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, non-tender 103 (8.1%) 0.81 (0.51-1.27) p = 0.38
  posterior cervical lymphadenopathy, non-tender 62 (4.9%) 0.67 (0.35-1.20) p = 0.19
  anterior cervical lymphadenopathy 132 (10.4%) 2.80 (1.94-4.04) p < 0.001**
  posterior cervical lymphadenopathy 38 (3.0%) 1.08 (0.52-2.12) p = 0.83
 lung exam
  wheezing 253 (19.9%) 1.82 (1.37-2.43) p < 0.001**
  rales 22 (1.7%) 8.26 (3.24-25.27) p < 0.001**
  rhonchi 273 (21.5%) 2.30 (1.74-3.03) p < 0.001**
  percussion abnormality 30 (2.4%) 9.89 (4.27-26.89) p < 0.001**
  1. includes symptoms and findings recorded for > 20 visits