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Table 1 Demographics and hospital outcomes comparing White and Black patients age ≥ 60 years and older hospitalized with infective endocarditis, National Inpatient Sample (2013–2014)

From: The influence of race in older adults with infective endocarditis

Patient characteristics and outcomesWhite patients
N = 7356
Black patients
N = 1089
p-value
Characteristics
 Age (years) (mean ± SE)73.5 ± 0.270.5 ± 0.5< 0.01
 Female, n (%)2692 (36.6)454 (41.7)0.15
 Charlson comorbidity score, n (%)  < 0.01
  01353 (18.4)84 (7.8) 
  11544 (21.0)194 (17.8) 
  21.449 (19.7)214 (19.7) 
  3 or more2993 (40.7)594 (54.6) 
 Comorbidities, (n%)
  Acute heart failure1,1,18 (15.2)184 (16.9)0.51
  Acute renal failure1691 (23.0)284 (26.1)0.33
  Candidemia22 (0.3)14 (1.3)0.19
  Cardiogenic shock176 (2.4)64 (5.9)0.03
  Complicated diabetes mellitus536 (7.3)154 (14.2)< 0.01
  Drug use117 (1.6)74 (6.8)< 0.01
  History of heart block397 (5.4)69 (6.4)0.59
  Human Immunodeficiency Virus14 (0.2)14 (1.3)0.14
  History of cerebral vascular accident1213 (16.5)199 (18.3)0.51
  Sepsis926 (12.6)193 (17.8)0.47
  Septic emboli684 (9.3)114 (10.5)0.59
  History of valvular disease132 (1.8)24 (2.2)0.04
 Median income in patient’s zip code, n (%)  < 0.01
  $1–$38,9991382 (18.8)440 (40.4) 
  $39,000–$47,9991780 (24.2)279 (25.7) 
  $48,000–$62,9991949 (26.5)228 (20.9) 
  $63,000 or more2228 (30.3)146 (13.4) 
 Insurance type, n (%)  < 0.01
  Medicare5678 (77.2)815 (74.9) 
  Medicaid213 (2.9)81 (7.5) 
  Private1360 (18.5)180 (16.5) 
  Uninsured95 (0.1.3)10 (0.94) 
 Hospital bed size, n (%)  0.09
  Small1059 (14.4)100 (9.2) 
  Medium1964 (26.7)278 (25.6) 
  Large4325 (58.8)709 (65.1) 
 Hospital region, n (%)  0.02
  Northeast2118 (28.8)249 (22.9) 
  Midwest1493 (20.3)230 (21.1) 
  South2375 (32.3)464 (42.6) 
  West1353 (18.4)264 (15.6) 
 Teaching hospital, n(%)  < 0.01
  Non-teaching926 (12.6)61 (5.6) 
  Teaching6429 (87.4)1028 (94.4) 
Outcomes
 In-hospital mortality, n (%)448 (6.1)104 (9.6)0.09
 AVR, n (%)750 (10.2)119 (11.0)0.7
 MVR, n (%)698 (9.5)95 (8.7)0.66
 TVR, n (%)44 (0.6)10 (0.9)0.6
  1. n Number, AVR Aortic valve repairs/replacements, MVR Mitral valve repairs/replacements, TVR Tricuspid valve repairs/replacement