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Table 1 Peruvian studies of Strongyloides stercoralis infection

From: Prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Peru: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID Setting (department) [altitude] Population Diagnostic procedure Prevalence estimate
Huaroto Sedda 1990 [30] National Hospital “Edgardo Rebagliati Martins” (Lima) [160 m] 1511 patients in Gastroenterology Service – String capsule
– Enterotest (1 sample)
2.4%
Rodriguez 1991 [18] Tarapoto, Amazon basin (San Martin) [141 m] 110 preschool children – Direct smear
– Faust floaty concentration
– Willis floating
– Graham’s tape
16%
Egido 2001 [24] Clinical Hospital, Puerto Maldonado, Amazon Basin (Madre de Dios) [139 m] 1133 outpatients with diarrhea (children and adults) – Direct fecal smears with saline solution and Lugol stain (3 samples) 19.5%
Marcos Raymundo 2002 [19] Rural survey, province of Jauja (Junin) [3391 m] 188 children
(1–16 years old)
– Spontaneous tube sedimentation technique
– Formalin-ether concentration
– Rapid sedimentation technique, modified by Lumbreras
1.5%
Marcos 2002 [16] Hospital cross-sectional study, Iquitos (Loreto) [100 m] 41 adults (20 from Military Hospital, 21 from Regional Hospital) – Direct microscopy
– Kato-Katz technique
– Spontaneous tube sedimentation technique
– Modified Baermann method
45 and 4.8%
Marcos 2003 [25] Community survey, rural and urban populations of Sandia (Puno) [2135 m] 72 children and adults – Direct microscopy
– Kato-Katz technique
– Spontaneous tube sedimentation technique
– Modified Baermann method
1.4%
Ministry of Health 2003 [10] Cross-sectional studies (countrywide) 294 studies and 214,199 people – Various 6.6%
Ibañez 2004 [20] Survey in rural community, Chancay district, Huaral province (Lima) [43 m] 1049 children (6–15 years old) – Direct examination
– Spontaneous tube sedimentation
– Rapid sedimentation technique modified by Lumbreras
– Kato-Katz technique
– Baermann method modified by Lumbreras
0.8%
Lau Chong 2005 [7] Survey in rural community, Peruvian Amazon, Oxapampa province (Pasco) [NA] [1814 m] 129 children and adults – Simple direct smear
– Spontaneous tube sedimentation
– Baermann method modified by Lumbreras
– Dancescu culture
– Agar plate culture technique
38.5%
Yori PP 2006 [11] Survey in rural community on Nanay River, Amazon Basin (Loreto) [100 m] 908 children and adults – Direct smear
– Baermann method
– Simple sedimentation
– ELISA positive
8.7%
72% seroprevalence
Garcia 2006 [15] Cayetano Heredia National Hospital, Lima (Lima) [160 m] 217 patients with HIV/AIDS – Direct examination
– Kato-Katz technique
– Spontaneous tube sedimentation
– Baermann method modified by Lumbreras
– Rapid sedimentation technique modified by Lumbreras
– Ziehl Neelsen stain
6%
Crotti 2007 [26] Chacas Hospital (Lima) [3300–3500 m] 91 patients (38 children + 53 adults) – Microscopic observations (direct and after formalin-ether concentration)
– Giemsa permanent stain
0.3%
Natividad-Carpio 2007 [8] Community survey, Chancay district, Huaral province (Lima) [161 m] 173 children (2–20 years-old) – Direct examination
– Spontaneous tube sedimentation
– Rapid sedimentation technique modified by Lumbreras
– Kato-Katz technique
– Baermann method, modified by Lumbreras
1.1%
Machicado 2012 [21] Rural survey, Tambopata province (Madre de Dios). Peruvian Rainforest [200 m] 73 children (2–20 years old) – Spontaneous tube sedimentation
– Kato-Katz technique
– Modified Baermann method
– Agar plate culture
– Harada-Mori culture
– Direct smear examination
16%
Cabada 2014 [27] Rural survey following deworming campaign, southern Peruvian Amazon (Madre de Dios) [600 m] 290 members of the Matsiguenga ethnic group – Direct examination
– Rapid sedimentation
– Kato-Katz technique
5.6%
Cabada 2014 [22] Rural communities survey around Cusco [3300–3500 m] 227 children (3–12 years old) – Direct examination
– Rapid sedimentation
– Kato-Katz technique
0.9%
Cabada 2016 [23] Rural survey communities around Cusco (Cusco) [3300–3500 m] 1230 children (3–16 years old) – Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests
– Kato-Katz technique (3 samples)
2%
Garaycochea 2018 [28] Provinces of Huaral, Oyón, Yauyos and Huarochirí. (Lima) [188–3600–2800-3100 m] 359 (children < 5 years old) – Direct sedimentation methods
– Heidenhain’s iron hematoxylin smear test
– Modified Ziehl Neelsen
– Graham’s method
6.8%
Morales 2019 [29] Community survey, rural population around Cusco: Quellouno [800 m] and Limatambo [2554 m] [3300 m] 462 participants (children and adults) – Baermann’s method
– Agar plate culture
– Sedimentation tests (1 sample)
24.5%*
26.4%** low altitude
18.6 high altitude
Errea 2019 [9] Rural community surveys in Padre Cocha (Amazon Basin) (Loreto) [100 m] 124 children – Direct smear analysis
– Kato-Katz technique
– Spontaneous tube sedimentation
– Baermann’s method
– Agar plate culture (1 sample)
10.5%
Ortiz-Martínez 2020 [17] Survey, urban and periurban Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon (Loreto) [100 m] 300 pregnant women (adults) – Baermann’s method
– Charcoal culture
– Kato-Katz technique
– ELISA (1 sample)
10%
30% seroprevalence