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Table 4 Aetiological test results and antibiotic choice in relation to outcomes

From: Association between bacterial finding, antibiotic treatment and clinical course in patients with pharyngotonsillitis: a registry-based study in primary healthcare in Sweden

Aetiological test Antibiotics1 Pharyngotonsillitis Complication Peritonsillitis2 Tonsillectomy
30 d 30 d 60 d 30 d 60 d 90 d
RADT for GAS        
 Positive PcV 652/7685 (8.5%) 108/7685 (1.4%) 169/7504 (2.3%) 23/7685 (0.30%) 27/7504 (0.36%) 16/7358 (0.22%)
Clindamycin 37/333 (11%) 10/333 (3.0%) 14/331 (4.2%) 4/333 (1.2%) 4/331 (1.2%) 3/328 (0.91%)
Cefadroxil 31/340 (9.1%) 5/340 (1.5%) 7/335 (2.1%) 2/340 (0.59%) 2/335 (0.60%) 1/331 (0.30%)
p 0.2 0.07† 0.06 0.02† 0.04† 0.04†
 Negative PcV 145/1604 (9.0%) 25/1604 (1.6%) 33/1582 (2.1%) 10/1604 (0.62%) 13/1582 (0.82%) 3/1564 (0.19%)
Clindamycin 25/178 (14%) 5/178 (2.8%) 6/176 (3.4%) 5/178 (2.8%) 5/176 (2.8%) 2/174 (1.1%)
Cefadroxil 13/115 (11%) 1/115 (0.87%) 2/115 (1.7%) 0/115 0/115 1/115 (0.87%)
p 0.08 0.4† 0.4† 0.02† 0.046† 0.052†
Throat culture3        
 S. pyogenes PcV 15/101 (15%) 1/101 (0.99%) 1/100 (1.0%) 1/101 (0.99%) 1/100 (1.0%) 0/98
Clindamycin 3/19 (16%) 0/19 0/19 0/19 0/19 0/19
Cefadroxil 3/19 (16%) 0/19 1/19 (5.3%) 0/19 0/19 0/19
p 1† 1† 0.5† 1† 1† -
 S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis4 PcV 10/64 (16%) 2/64 (3.1%) 2/63 (3.2%) 2/64 (3.1%) 2/63 (3.2%) 0/62
Clindamycin 3/13 (23%) 0/13 0/13 0/13 0/13 0/13
Cefadroxil 0/8 0/8 0/8 0/8 0/8 0/8
p 0.5† 1† 1† 1† 1† -
 F. necrophorum5 PcV 7/25 (28%) 1/25 (4.0%) 2/25 (8.0%) 0/25 1/25 (4.0%) 1/22 (4.5%)
Clindamycin 4/15 (27%) 2/15 (13%) 2/15 (13%) 2/15 (13%) 2/15 (13%) 0/15
Cefadroxil 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0
p 1† 0.6† 0.6† 0.1† 0.6† 1†
 Negative PcV 83/318 (26%) 20/318 (6.3%) 23/311 (7.4%) 17/318 (5.3%) 18/311 (5.8%) 4/307 (1.3%)
Clindamycin 17/70 (24%) 6/70 (8.6%) 7/70 (10%) 6/70 (8.6%) 6/70 (8.6%) 2/69 (2.9%)
Cefadroxil 9/24 (38%) 0/24 0/24 0/24 0/24 0/23
p 0.4 0.4† 0.3† 0.3† 0.4† 0.5†
  1. Fisher’s exact test; RADT Rapid Antigen Detection Test; GAS Group A Streptococci
  2. 1Antibiotics prescribed on the same day as the index visit. In Sweden, PcV is the recommended antibiotic for pharyngotonsillitis and Clindamycin and Cefadroxil are alternatives. All antibiotics are recommended for ten days of treatment
  3. 2All cases with peritonsillitis are also included in “Complication”
  4. 3Refers to findings of single pathogens within seven days of the index visit
  5. 4Before 2013, S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis was reported as either group C or G streptococci, which is detailed in the Methods section
  6. 5To detect F. necrophorum, an extended culture was needed (see Methods section). In total, 625/1 370 (46%) of the patients had an extended culture