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Bacterial and fungal diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of bacterial and fungal diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section includes studies relating to antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections.

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  1. The burden of cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still uncertain. Available studies used different designs and different criteria to define CV ...

    Authors: Filippo Pieralli, Vieri Vannucchi, Carlo Nozzoli, Giuseppe Augello, Francesco Dentali, Giulia De Marzi, Generoso Uomo, Filippo Risaliti, Laura Morbidoni, Antonino Mazzone, Claudio Santini, Daniela Tirotta, Francesco Corradi, Riccardo Gerloni, Paola Gnerre, Gualberto Gussoni…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Diarrhoea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five years old. In Kenya, it has a 21% case fatality with Enteropathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp.

    Authors: Ongwae H. Zachariah, Mwamburi A. Lizzy, Kakai Rose and Mutuku M. Angela

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human worldwide. The aim of study was to assess the distribution of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and capsular genoty...

    Authors: Mahnaz Sarhangi, Bita Bakhshi and Shahin Najar Peeraeyeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Better information on the typical course and management of acute common infections in the community could inform antibiotic stewardship campaigns. We aimed to investigate the incidence, management, and natural...

    Authors: Catherine M. Smith, Laura J. Shallcross, Peter Dutey-Magni, Anne Conolly, Christopher Fuller, Suzanne Hill, Arnoupe Jhass, Franziska Marcheselli, Susan Michie, Jennifer S. Mindell, Matthew J. Ridd, Georgios Tsakos, Andrew C. Hayward and Ellen B. Fragaszy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:105

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Scalp Eschar and Neck LymphAdenopathy after Tick bite is a zoonotic non-pathogen-specific disease most commonly due to Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii. Diagnosis is mostly based only on epidemiological...

    Authors: Giulia Barlozzari, Federico Romiti, Maurizio Zini, Adele Magliano, Claudio De Liberato, Franco Corrias, Guglielmo Capponi, Luisa Galli, Manuela Scarpulla and Carlotta Montagnani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:103

    Content type: Case report

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  6. The increasing use of antifungal drugs (AF) in children and the concern for related adverse events and costs has led to the development of specific AF stewardship programmes (AFS). Studies in adult patients ha...

    Authors: Natalia Mendoza-Palomar, Beatriz Garcia-Palop, Susana Melendo, Maria Teresa Martín, Berta Renedo-Miró, Pere Soler-Palacin and Aurora Fernández-Polo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:100

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Echocardiography (echo) is the primary imaging modality for infective endocarditis (IE). However, the recommendations on timing and mode selection for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic e...

    Authors: Peihan Xie, Xiaodong Zhuang, Menghui Liu, Shaozhao Zhang, Jia Liu, Donghong Liu and Xinxue Liao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Keratitis due to by filamentous fungi are not easy to diagnose thus causing a delay in correct therapy. There are many descriptions of keratitis due to Candida, Fusarium and Aspergillus genera. Subramaniula genus...

    Authors: Rosario Cultrera, Riccardo Torelli, Caterina Sarnicola, Daniela Segala, Andrea Mengoli, Giuseppina Chiaretto, Paolo Perri and Maurizio Sanguinetti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:82

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Candidemia has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, with a mortality rate of 30–50%. It is the fourth most common nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) in the United States and the seventh most commo...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Asai, Wataru Ohashi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi and Hiroshige Mikamo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Invasive candidiasis is the most common fungal disease among hospitalized patients and continues to be a major cause of mortality. Risk factors for mortality have been studied previously but rarely developed i...

    Authors: Ding Li, Tianjiao Li, Changsen Bai, Qing Zhang, Zheng Li and Xichuan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cancer patients are more likely to develop and die of bloodstream infection (BSI) than noncancer patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with immense mortality and econom...

    Authors: Zhouqi Li, Hemu Zhuang, Guannan Wang, Hui Wang and Ying Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In pregnant women Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) can be transmitted to newborn causing severe infections. It is classified into 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, II-IX). The severity of neonatal disease is determined by the ...

    Authors: Fernando J. Bobadilla, Marina G. Novosak, Iliana J. Cortese, Osvaldo D. Delgado and Margarita E. Laczeski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Few follow-up studies have assessed antibody titers using serologic tests from various commercial laboratories and the Korea Cente...

    Authors: Choon-Mee Kim, Dong-Min Kim and Na Ra Yun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Recently, many cases of pneumonia in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection have been shown to have varying degrees of intrabronchial mucus plug formation. The clinical, laboratory, radiological characteri...

    Authors: Jiahui Zhang, Ting Wang, Rongrong Li, Wei Ji, Yongdong Yan, Zhichao Sun, Jiahong Tan, Jinfeng Wu, Li Huang and Zhengrong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Early detection and treatment of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), major causative pathogens of sepsis (a potentially fatal condition caused by the body’s response to an infection), may benefit a patient’s outcome...

    Authors: Chan-Peng Hsu, Hsin-Yu Chen, Wei-Lung Chen, Jiann-Hwa Chen, Chien-Cheng Huang, Po-Han Wu and Jui-Yuan Chung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Small bowel obstruction is one of the leading reasons for accessing to the Emergency Department. Food poisoning from Clostridium botulinum has emerged as a very rare potential cause of small bowel obstruction. Th...

    Authors: Alberto Friziero, Cosimo Sperti, Gianfranco Da Dalt, Nicola Baldan, Gianpietro Zanchettin, Pasquale Auricchio, Laura Gavagna, Andrea Grego, Giulia Capelli and Stefano Merigliano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:55

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is the most common clinical symptom of singer transducer and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function (GOF) mutations. Bronchiectasis ...

    Authors: Yali Yu, Fei Xu, Hui Shen and Jiang Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:38

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Previous studies have reported poor prognosis in cases of tetanus that develops after bacteria enters via breast cancer-related skin ulcers that are not treated with surgical debridement. Herein, we review the...

    Authors: Kazuhito Nomura, Eiji Sakawaki, Sonoko Sakawaki, Ayumu Yamaoka, Wakiko Aisaka, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Yoshihiro Takeyama, Shuji Uemura and Eichi Narimatsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:37

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection can occur in an immunocompromised host. Although rare, bacteremia due to Y. pseudotuberculosis may also occur in immunocompetent hosts. The prognosis and therapeutic strategy...

    Authors: Takehiro Hashimoto, Ryuichi Takenaka, Haruka Fukuda, Kazuhiko Hashinaga, Shin-ichi Nureki, Hideki Hayashidani, Teruo Sakamoto and Osamu Shigemitsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:36

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Bacterial infections are a significant cause of sickness and death in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence, distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of major bacteri...

    Authors: Pizga Kumwenda, Emmanuel C. Adukwu, Ebot S. Tabe, Victor. C. Ujor, Pocha S. Kamudumuli, Maono Ngwira, Joseph Tsung Shu Wu and Master R. O. Chisale

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Salmonellas enterica serovar Typhi (S.typhi) causes typhoid fever and is a global health problem, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. But there is a little information about prevalence and factors a...

    Authors: Roza Nasir Awol, Dawit Yihdego Reda and Deresse Daka Gidebo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a fatal infectious disease caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJP). The major factor relevant to morbidity and mortality seems to be the host inflammatory reaction. The objective of...

    Authors: Mohammad Y. Alshahrani, Mohammed Alfaifi, Mesfer Al Shahrani, Abdulaziz S. Alshahrani, Ali G. Alkhathami, Ayed A. Dera, Irfan Ahmad, Shadma Wahab, Mirza M. A. Beg, Ali Hakamy and Mohamed E. Hamid

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Ruxolitinib is a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is used for treatment of myeloproliferative diseases. It exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, and may increase the risk of op...

    Authors: Naruemit Sayabovorn, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool and Methee Chayakulkeeree

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:27

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease whose prognosis is often difficult to predict based on clinical data. Biomarkers have been shown to favorably affect disease management in a number of ...

    Authors: Rosa Zampino, Domenico Iossa, Maria Paola Ursi, Lorenzo Bertolino, Roberto Andini, Rosa Molaro, Oriana Fabrazzo, Silvia Leonardi, Luigi Atripaldi and Emanuele Durante-Mangoni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:23

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Pulmonary infections caused by non-diphtheriae corynebacteria are increasing. However, rapid identification of Corynebacterium species poses a challenge due to the low genetic variation within the genus.

    Authors: Shuai Xu, Xiaotong Qiu, Xuexin Hou, Haijian Zhou, Dongke Chen, Xuebing Wang, Lichao Han, Dan Li, Lina Sun, Xingzhao Ji, Minghui Li, Jingshan Zhang, Mengtong Li and Zhenjun Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:21

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Exotoxins secreted from Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes act as superantigens that induce systemic release of inflammatory cytokines and are a common cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). However, l...

    Authors: Ken Goda, Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Masahiko Hoshijima, Akihiro Yachie and Hozuka Akita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:19

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Epidemiological data of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales in Sub-Saharan Africa is still restricted, and in particular in Mozambique. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize extended-spectrum ...

    Authors: Calvina E. L. Estaleva, Tomas F. Zimba, John Osei Sekyere, Usha Govinden, Hafizah Y. Chenia, Gunnar S. Simonsen, Bjørg Haldorsen, Sabiha Y. Essack and Arnfinn Sundsfjord

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:16

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) invasive liver abscess syndrome (ILAS) with purulent meningitis was rarely identified the mainland of China. Last winter, we received 3 cases of K. pneumoniae meningitis and ...

    Authors: Ruixue Sun, Hui Zhang, Yingchun Xu, Huadong Zhu, Xuezhong Yu and Jun Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:15

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) is one of the commensal flora in the human intestinal tract and a prevalent nosocomial pathogen, which rarely causes infectious osteoarthritis in immunocompetent patients without...

    Authors: Jingjie Huang, Qiliang Xu, Fuyifei Liu, Hao Xiong and Junxing Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:13

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Campylobacter spp. infections are a globally important cause of enterocolitis, causing substantial morbidity. Capturing accurate information on hospitalisations is challenging and limited population-level data ex...

    Authors: Cameron R. M. Moffatt, Karina J. Kennedy, Linda Selvey and Martyn D. Kirk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  31. To determine the prevalence of enteric infections in Aboriginal children aged 0–2 years using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques and to explore associations between the presence of pathogens and ...

    Authors: Sarah Hanieh, Siddhartha Mahanty, George Gurruwiwi, Therese Kearns, Roslyn Dhurrkay, Veronica Gondarra, Jenny Shield, Norbert Ryan, Francesca Azzato, Susan A. Ballard, Nicole Orlando, Sullen Nicholson, Katherine Gibney, Julie Brimblecombe, Wendy Page, Leonard C. Harrison…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:9

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Nocardiosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised patients or those with a dysfunctional immune system. Nocardia asteroides infection in patients with Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) has ne...

    Authors: Ning Luo, Shifan Tan, Xiaocai Li, Si Liu, Shivank Singh, Mafeng Chen, Weiye Yang, Yanhong He, Chunna Chen and Min Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:8

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of invasive neonatal disease in the industrialized world. We aimed to genomically and phenotypically characterise invasive GBS isolates in Slovenia from 2001 to 20...

    Authors: Tina Perme, Daniel Golparian, Maja Bombek Ihan, Andrej Rojnik, Miha Lučovnik, Lilijana Kornhauser Cerar, Petja Fister, Jana Lozar Krivec, Štefan Grosek, Alojz Ihan, Samo Jeverica and Magnus Unemo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:958

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Filamentous basidiomycetes are mainly considered to be respiratory tract colonizers but the clinical significance of their isolation in a specimen is debatable. Hormographiella aspergillata was first reported as ...

    Authors: Maxime Moniot, Rose-Anne Lavergne, Thomas Morel, Romain Guieze, Florent Morio, Philippe Poirier and Céline Nourrisson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:945

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization (PNC) generally precedes pneumococcal disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of PNC and to identify the pneumococcal serotypes circulating a...

    Authors: Sophie Jullien, Ragunath Sharma, Mimi Lhamu Mynak, Desiree Henares, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro and Quique Bassat

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:940

    Content type: Research article

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  36. There are still controversies regarding the treatment and outcomes in culture-negative pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO). The purpose of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial therapy, assessment ...

    Authors: Dongwoo Yu, Sang Woo Kim and Ikchan Jeon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:939

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In spite of the evident general negative effects of armed conflict on countries’ health systems and populations’ health outcomes, little is known about similar impacts of conflicts on the spread of antimicrobi...

    Authors: Claudia Truppa and Mahmoud N. Abo-Shehada

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:936

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative, obligate aerobic coccobacillus known to cause disease in domesticated animals and pets. In humans, B. bronchiseptica commonly leads to respiratory infections like pne...

    Authors: Christopher Radcliffe, Audun Lier, Natnael Doilicho, Sunil Parikh and Firas Kaddouh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:922

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (Kp-BSI) is a serious threat to pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to explore the risk factors, validate the prediction efficiency of pediatric Sequent...

    Authors: Shuang Li, Jingxian Liu, Feng Chen, Kang Cai, Jintong Tan, Wei Xie, Rong Qian, Xiaoqin Liu, Wenhong Zhang, Huimin Du, Ying Liu and Lisu Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:916

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The spleen contains immune cells and exhibits a pattern of infarction different from other organs; as such, splenic infarction (SI) may provide important clues to infection. However, the nature of the relation...

    Authors: Jae Hyoung Im, Moon-Hyun Chung, Hye-Jin Lee, Hea Yoon Kwon, Ji Hyeon Baek, Ji-Hun Jang and Jin-Soo Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:915

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The objective of this study was to evaluate the virulence of P. aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) strains (cases) in terms of biofilm production and other phenotypic and genotypic virulence factors...

    Authors: Beatriz Alonso, Laia Fernández-Barat, Enea Gino Di Domenico, Mercedes Marín, Emilia Cercenado, Irene Merino, Manuela de Pablos, Patricia Muñoz and María Guembe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:909

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:951

  42. Diarrhoea, affecting children in developing countries, is mainly caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). This study principally aimed to determine the prevalence of DEC pathotypes and Extended-spectrum β-...

    Authors: Rasha M. M. Khairy, Zahra Atef Fathy, Doaa Mohamed Mahrous, Ebtisam S. Mohamed and Soha S. Abdelrahim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:908

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae) infections, usually related to upper airways involvement, could be highly invasive. Especially in developing countries, non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains are now em...

    Authors: Antonio de Santis, Rinaldo Focaccia Siciliano, Roney Orismar Sampaio, Masahiko Akamine, Elinthon T. Veronese, Francisco Monteiro de Almeida Magalhaes, Maria Rita Elmor Araújo, Flavia Rossi, Marcelo M. C. Magri, Ana Catharina Nastri, Tarso A. D. Accorsi, Vitor E. E. Rosa, David Provenzale Titinger, Guilherme S. Spina and Flavio Tarasoutchi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:907

    Content type: Case report

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  44. The diagnosis of non-malarial aetiologies, which now represent the majority of febrile illnesses, has remained problematic in settings with limited laboratory capacity. We aimed to describe common aetiologies ...

    Authors: Techalew Shimelis, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Fitsum W/Gebriel, John A. Crump, Gill Schierhout, Sabine Dittrich, John M Kaldor and Susana Vaz Nery

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:903

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) presents heterogeneously, owing to the differences in underlying host conditions and immune responses. Although Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important in recognizing S. au...

    Authors: Nak-Hyun Kim, Ji Yeon Sung, Yoon Jung Choi, Su-Jin Choi, Soyeon Ahn, Eunjeong Ji, Moonsuk Kim, Chung Jong Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Eu Suk Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Myoung-don Oh and Hong Bin Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:901

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is a gram-positive filamentous bacterium found primarily in soil and sewage that rarely causes human infection, especially in previously healthy adults, but when it does, it often ind...

    Authors: Huifang Zhang, Chunyan He, Rui Tian and Ruilan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:893

    Content type: Case report

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  47. A pneumatocele is a transient thin-walled lesion and rare complication in adult pneumonia.

    Authors: Masahiro Sano, Aya Shimamoto, Nozomi Ueki, Motohiro Sekino, Hiroshi Nakaoka, Masahiro Takaki, Yoshiro Yamashita, Takeshi Tanaka, Konosuke Morimoto, Katsunori Yanagihara, Masahiro Nakashima, Kazuto Ashizawa and Koya Ariyoshi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:892

    Content type: Case report

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  48. Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is a zoonotic disease that mostly infects slaughterhouse workers. Rapid diagnosis of Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is critical for effective clinical management ...

    Authors: Xiaobo Zhang, Zhaoping Wu and Kai Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:884

    Content type: Case report

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