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Healthcare-associated infection control

This section aims to publish studies looking at infection prevention and control in the healthcare setting and includes disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis, alongside hand hygiene, surveillance and other interventions.


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  1. SARS-CoV-2 poses a considerable threat to those living in residential aged care facilities (RACF). RACF COVID-19 outbreaks have been characterised by the rapid spread of infection and high rates of severe dise...

    Authors: Amanda Brass, Andrew P. Shoubridge, Maria Crotty, Lidia Morawska, Scott C. Bell, Ming Qiao, Richard J. Woodman, Craig Whitehead, Maria C. Inacio, Caroline Miller, Megan Corlis, Nicolas Larby, Levi Elms, Sarah K. Sims, Steven L. Taylor, Erin Flynn…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:967

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. The aims of this study are to determine (i) SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive employees in Austrian trauma hospitals and rehabilitation facilities, (ii) number of active virus carriers (symptomatic and asymptomatic...

    Authors: Iris Leister, Elisabeth Ponocny-Seliger, Herwig Kollaritsch, Peter Dungel, Barbara Holzer, Johannes Grillari, Heinz Redl, Ivo Ponocny, Claudia Wilfing, Ludwig Aigner, Markus Exner, Michaela Stainer, Matthias Hackl, Thomas Hausner, Rainer Mittermayr and Wolfgang Schaden

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:915

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Airway malacia is an important cause of noisy breathing, recurrent wheezing and respiratory infections, chronic coughing, and episodes of respiratory distress in young children. As the clinical manifestations ...

    Authors: Ting Wang, Qiuyan Xu, Ge Dai, Yu Hong, Zhengrong Chen, Min Lu, Yongdong Yan and Wujun Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:902

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Maternal immunization confers passive immunity to the fetus by transplacental antibody transfer. Infants may be better protected against pertussis if the mother received a diphtheriae, tetanus and acellular pe...

    Authors: Maarten M. Immink, Mireille N. Bekker, Hester E. de Melker, Nynke Y. Rots, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders and Nicoline A. T. van der Maas

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:897

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Antimicrobial resistance is fueled by inappropriate use of antibiotics. Global and national strategies support rational use of antibiotics to retain treatment options and reduce resistance. In Germany, the ARe...

    Authors: Regina Poss-Doering, Dorothea Kronsteiner, Martina Kamradt, Edith Andres, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Michel Wensing and Joachim Szecsenyi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:877

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Respiratory diseases are a major reason for refugees and other immigrants seeking health care in countries of arrival. The burden of respiratory diseases in refugees is exacerbated by sometimes poor living con...

    Authors: Jan-Frederic Lambert, Katarina Stete, James Balmford, Annabelle Bockey, Winfried Kern, Siegbert Rieg, Martin Boeker and Berit Lange

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:872

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has quickly spread worldwide since its outbreak in December ...

    Authors: Kesheng Li, Chongxiang Tong, Xiaoqin Ha, Chaoning Zeng, Xia Chen, Feifei Xu, Jinhong Yang, Huifen Du, Yuxin Chen, Jing Cai, Zengwei Yang, Zhongyi Jiang, Dandan Chai, Xueliang Zhang, Xun Li, Junfeng Li…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:860

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The extraordinary olfactory sense of canines combined with the possibility to learn by operant conditioning enables dogs for their use in medical detection in a wide range of applications. Research on the abil...

    Authors: Paula Jendrny, Friederike Twele, Sebastian Meller, Albertus Dominicus Marcellinus Erasmus Osterhaus, Esther Schalke and Holger Andreas Volk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:838

    Content type: Review

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  9. According to the literature, 25% to 50% of antimicrobials prescribed in hospitals are unnecessary or inappropriate, directly impacting antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the us...

    Authors: Ravena Melo Ribeiro da Silva, Simonize Cunha B. de Mendonça, Ingrid Novaes Leão, Quesia Nery dos Santos, Alessandra Macedo Batista, Matheus Santos Melo, Milena da Motta Xavier, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Wellington Barros da Silva and Iza Maria Fraga Lobo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:827

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Hand hygiene plays a crucial role in the transmission of pathogens and the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. In 2007, a voluntary national electronic surveillance tool for the documentation of co...

    Authors: Tobias Siegfried Kramer, Janine Walter, Christin Schröder, Michael Behnke, Jörg Clausmeyer, Christiane Reichardt, Petra Gastmeier and Karin Bunte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:766

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted supply chains for many types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), particularly surgical N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs; “masks”). As a consequence, an...

    Authors: Deborah Plana, Enze Tian, Avilash K. Cramer, Helen Yang, Mary M. Carmack, Michael S. Sinha, Florence T. Bourgeois, Sherry H. Yu, Peter Masse, Jon Boyer, Minjune Kim, Jinhan Mo, Nicole R. LeBoeuf, Ju Li and Peter K. Sorger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:712

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Covid-19 in Mexico is on the rise in different parts of the country. We aimed to study the symptoms and comorbidities that associate with this pandemic in 3 different regions of Mexico.

    Authors: Antonio Pizuorno, Nora A. Fierro, Edgar D. Copado-Villagrana, María E. Herrera-Solís, Gholamreza Oskrochi, Hassan Brim and Hassan Ashktorab

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:555

    Content type: Research article

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  13. In sub-Saharan Africa, acute respiratory infections (ARI), acute gastrointestinal infections (GI) and acute febrile disease of unknown cause (AFDUC) have a large disease burden, especially among children, whil...

    Authors: Grit Schubert, Vincent Achi, Steve Ahuka, Essia Belarbi, Ouattara Bourhaima, Tim Eckmanns, Siobhan Johnstone, Firmin Kabore, Ouffoue Kra, Adriano Mendes, Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Armel Poda, Arsène Satouro Some, Sara Tomczyk, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Jean-Marie Kayembe…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:539

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. The literature examining healthcare-associated infections (HAI) points to two main problems in conforming to infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines among healthcare professionals (HP). One is the di...

    Authors: Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Ricky Cohen, Adva Mir Halavi and Mina Zemach

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:495

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Novel-coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease is currently a worldwide health risk and public health emergency concern. The virus is transmitted from an infected person to another person through close contact and ...

    Authors: Dereje Tsegaye, Muluneh Shuremu, Dereje Oljira, Sileshi Dubale, Getachew Befekadu and Kebebe Bidira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:490

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Globally, Coronavirus disease-19 has created unprecedented challenges to public health. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of COVID-19 because of their profession. There are limited studies conducted in Eth...

    Authors: Werku Etafa, Gosa Gadisa, Shibiru Jabessa and Tagay Takele

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:454

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The Hawthorne Effect is the change in behaviour by subjects due to their awareness of being observed and is evident in both research and clinical settings as a result of various forms of observation. When the ...

    Authors: Francis Rezk, Margaretha Stenmarker, Stefan Acosta, Karoline Johansson, Malin Bengnér, Håkan Åstrand and Ann-Christine Andersson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:420

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to expand. Herein, we report the epidemiological and clinical features of 478 patients with confirmed COVID-19 from a multicenter study conducted in f...

    Authors: Jinjun Zhang, Shixiong Yang, Yi Xu, Xinyan Qin, Jialiang Liu, Jinjun Guo, Sijia Tian, Shaoping Wang, Kai Liao, Ying Zhang, Yu Ma and Yuguo Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:406

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Our aim was to examine whether the length of stay, hospital charges and in-hospital mortality attributable to healthcare- and community-associated infections due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria were higher...

    Authors: Katia Iskandar, Christine Roques, Souheil Hallit, Rola Husni-Samaha, Natalia Dirani, Rana Rizk, Rachel Abdo, Yasmina Yared, Matta Matta, Inas Mostafa, Roula Matta, Pascale Salameh and Laurent Molinier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:404

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The emerging threat of antibiotic resistance is growing exponentially and antibiotic stewardship programs are cornerstone to fight against this global threat. The study aimed to explore the knowledge, perspect...

    Authors: Muhammad Atif, Beenish Ihsan, Iram Malik, Nafees Ahmad, Zikria Saleem, Azka Sehar and Zaheer-ud-Din Babar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:374

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Older patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are at high risk for short-term mortality. Activity of daily living (ADL) is associated with clinical outcomes in older patients. We aimed to...

    Authors: Yu Kang, Xiang-Yang Fang, Dong Wang and Xiao-Juan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:314

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Brucellosis is a major public health problem that seriously affects developing countries and could cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry and great harm to human health. Reasonable predict...

    Authors: Mengmeng Zhai, Wenhan Li, Ping Tie, Xuchun Wang, Tao Xie, Hao Ren, Zhuang Zhang, Weimei Song, Dichen Quan, Meichen Li, Limin Chen and Lixia Qiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:280

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Hand transmission of harmful microorganisms may lead to infections and poses a major threat to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The most effective countermeasure against these transmissi...

    Authors: J. M. van Niekerk, A. Stein, M. H. E. Doting, M. Lokate, L. M. A. Braakman-Jansen and J. E. W. C. van Gemert-Pijnen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:260

    Content type: Research article

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  24. During the last six decades, extensive use of antibiotics has selected resistant strains, increasing the rate of fatal infectious diseases, and exerting an economic burden on society. This situation is widely ...

    Authors: Hazrat Bilal, Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Tayyab Rehman, Muhammad Fazal Hameed and Xingyuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:244

    Content type: Research article

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  25. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological, microbiological, and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Leclercia adecarboxylata in three hospitals associated with the unintended ...

    Authors: Elvira Garza-González, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Esteban González-Díaz, Jesús Silva-Sanchez, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Iván Fernando Contreras-Coronado-Tovar, José Ecil Santos-Hernández, David Gutiérrez-Bañuelos, Juan Pablo Mena-Ramirez, Saúl Ramírez-De-los-Santos, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz and Rayo Morfín-Otero

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:235

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The goals of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) of Japan include “implementing appropriate infection prevention and control” and “appropriate use of antimicrobials,” which are relevant ...

    Authors: Jung-ho Shin, Seiko Mizuno, Takuya Okuno, Hisashi Itoshima, Noriko Sasaki, Susumu Kunisawa, Mitsuo Kaku, Makiko Yoshida, Yoshiaki Gu, Daiichi Morii, Keigo Shibayama, Norio Ohmagari and Yuichi Imanaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:234

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The lab-confirmed interval is the date from lab confirmation in a core case (infector) to lab confirmation in a second case (infectee); however, its distribution and application are seldom reported. This study...

    Authors: Lihong Huang, Liangmin Wei, Yue Jiang and Lijuan Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:226

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are relevant in developing countries where frequencies can be at least 3 times higher than in developed countries. The purpose of this research was to describe the inter...

    Authors: Ladjane Santos Wolmer de Melo, Maria Verônica Monteiro de Abreu, Bernuarda Roberta de Oliveira Santos, Maria das Graças Washington Casimiro Carreteiro, Maria Fernanda Aparecida Moura de Souza, Maria Carolina Andrade Lins de Albuquerque, Claudia Fernanda de Lacerda Vidal and Heloisa Ramos Lacerda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:212

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Inconsistent hand hygiene puts people who inject drugs (PWID) at high risk of infectious diseases, in particular skin and soft tissue infections. In healthcare settings, handwashing with alcohol-based hand rub...

    Authors: Salim Mezaache, Laélia Briand-Madrid, Linda Rahni, Julien Poireau, Fiona Branchu, Khafil Moudachirou, Yourine Wendzinski, Patrizia Carrieri and Perrine Roux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:211

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The association between blood culture status and mortality among sepsis patients remains controversial hence we conducted a tri-center retrospective cohort study to compare the early and late mortality of cult...

    Authors: Aibo Liu, Chia-Hung Yo, Lu Nie, Hua Yu, Kuihai Wu, Hoi Sin Tong, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Wan-Ting Hsu and Chien-Chang Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:182

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has recently shown to be one of the most important strains of bacteria and alert pathogens in Europe among Intensive Care Unit patients that provide serious therapeutic problems because of ...

    Authors: Agnieszka Litwin, Stanislaw Rojek, Waldemar Gozdzik and Wieslawa Duszynska

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In December 2019, a pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China and has rapidly spread around the world since then. This study is to explore the patient characteristics and transmission chains of CO...

    Authors: Xuanchen Yan, Jianjian Wang, Jingwen Yao, Janne Estill, Shouyuan Wu, Jie Lu, Baoping Liang, Hongmin Li, Shengxin Tao, Huanli Bai, Hongliang Liu and Yaolong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  33. New coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a severe threat to human life and caused a global pandemic. The current research aimed to explore whether the search-engine query patterns could serve as a pot...

    Authors: Bizhi Tu, Laifu Wei, Yaya Jia and Jun Qian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:98

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Inappropriate antibiotic use is linked to the spread of antimicrobial resistance worldwide, but there are limited systemic data on antibiotic utilization in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of thi...

    Authors: Helen L. Zhang, Champica Bodinayake, Gaya B. Wijayaratne, Pasangi Jayatissa, D. L. Bhagya Piyasiri, Ruvini Kurukulasooriya, Tianchen Sheng, Ajith Nagahawatte, Christopher Woods and L. Gayani Tillekeratne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  35. To determine the phenotype, molecular characterisation and risk factors of postoperative meningitis induced by Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in China.

    Authors: Guanghui Zheng, Yanfei Cao, Chunhong Liu, Lingye Qian, Yumeng Cai, Miaomiao Cui, Huiting Sun, Lv Hong, Jun Yuan, Lina Zhang and Guojun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:85

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The elderly population in Hong Kong is rapidly growing, and the need for residential care homes (RCHs) is increasing. The risk of being infected with micro-organisms increases among the frail and the vulnerabl...

    Authors: Jessie Kit Ling Au, Lorna Kwai Ping Suen and Simon Ching Lam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Knowing the number of undetected cases of COVID-19 is important for a better understanding of the spread of the disease. This study analyses the temporal dynamic of detected vs. undetected cases to provide gui...

    Authors: C. Rippinger, M. Bicher, C. Urach, D. Brunmeir, N. Weibrecht, G. Zauner, G. Sroczynski, B. Jahn, N. Mühlberger, U. Siebert and N. Popper

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:70

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Testing is one of the most effective means to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is an upper bound on daily testing volume because of limited healthcare staff and working hours, as well as different ...

    Authors: Yapeng Cui, Shunjiang Ni and Shifei Shen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Hand hygiene (HH) is the cornerstone of infection control, and the promotion of HH is the focus of the world. The study aims to compare the role of two different types of electronic hand hygiene monitoring sys...

    Authors: Xiao Zhong, Dong-Li Wang, Li-Hua Xiao, Lan-Fang Mo, Qing-Fei Wu, Yan-Wei Chen and Xiao-Feng Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Immunocompromised children and adults are at increased risk for severe disease and death following varicella zoster virus infection. Varicella zoster immune globulin (human) (VARIZIG) is recommended for post-e...

    Authors: Hayley Gans and Roy F. Chemaly

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:46

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), a tropically neglected infectious disease caused by Nairovirus, is endemic in low middle-income countries like Pakistan. Emergency health care professionals (HCPs) are at ...

    Authors: Ali Ahmed, Muhammad Saqlain, Maria Tanveer, Azhar Hussain Tahir, Fakhar Ud-Din, Maryum Ibrar Shinwari, Gul Majid Khan and Naveed Anwer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem compromising the effective treatment of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) is encouraging and promoting awareness creation among health ...

    Authors: Emelda E. Chukwu, David A. Oladele, Christian A. Enwuru, Peter L. Gogwan, Dennis Abuh, Rosemary A. Audu and Folasade T. Ogunsola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:22

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are among the leading causes of the postoperative complications. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiologic characteristics of orthopedic SSIs and estimating the under-...

    Authors: Niloufar Taherpour, Yadollah Mehrabi, Arash Seifi, Babak Eshrati and Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Intracranial infection after puncture of cerebral hematoma in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is very common in the department of neurosurgery, yet the relevant risks remain unknown. We attempted to ana...

    Authors: Haijing Han, Yu Li, Li Liu, Ningning Liu, Ying Wang and Min Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:949

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Describing transmission dynamics of the outbreak and impact of intervention measures are critical to planning responses to future outbreaks and providing timely information to guide policy makers decision. We ...

    Authors: Khouloud Talmoudi, Mouna Safer, Hejer Letaief, Aicha Hchaichi, Chahida Harizi, Sonia Dhaouadi, Sondes Derouiche, Ilhem Bouaziz, Donia Gharbi, Nourhene Najar, Molka Osman, Ines Cherif, Rym Mlallekh, Oumaima Ben-Ayed, Yosr Ayedi, Leila Bouabid…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:914

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Following delivery by caesarean section, surgical site infection is the most common infectious complication. Despite a large number of caesarean sections performed at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, there was ...

    Authors: Daniel Bekele Ketema, Fasil Wagnew, Moges Agazhe Assemie, Aster Ferede, Alehegn Aderaw Alamneh, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Pammla Petrucka, Animut Takele Telayneh and Animut Alebel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:902

    Content type: Research article

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  47. There is limited data to guide the prevention and management of surgical site infections (SSI) in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively studied aetiological agents associated with SSI and their co...

    Authors: Antoinette A. A. Bediako-Bowan, Jørgen A. L. Kurtzhals, Kåre Mølbak, Appiah-Korang Labi, Enid Owusu and Mercy J. Newman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:890

    Content type: Research article

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  48. While hospital-acquired influenza A results in an additional cost burden and considerable mortality in patients, its risk factors are unknown. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients vulnerable to...

    Authors: Kui Yang, Ni Zhang, Chunchen Gao, Hongyan Qin, Anhui Wang and Liqiang Song

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:863

    Content type: Research article

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Annual Journal Metrics

COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.