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HIV and co-infections

Section edited by Carlo Torti 

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence, clinical presentation and risk factors of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) cases in China.

    Authors: Ming Xue, Ruming Xie, Yu Pang, Shuo Yan, Yanni Du, Chunshuang Guan and Budong Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:554

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Talaromyces marneffei (TM) is a dimorphic fungus mainly prevalent in Southeast Asian countries, which often causes disseminated life-threatening infection. TM infection often occurs in HIV/AIDS patients even in t...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Qin, Xiaojie Huang, Hui Chen, Xinchao Liu, Yao Li, Jianhua Hou, Aixin Li, Xiaofeng Yan and Yaokai Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:551

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection is characterized by high viral replication and a decrease in CD4+ T cells (CD4+TC), resulting in AIDS, which can lead to death. In elite controllers and viremia cont...

    Authors: Samara Tatielle Monteiro Gomes, Ednelza da Silva Graça Amoras, Érica Ribeiro Gomes, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Edivaldo Costa Sousa Júnior, Janaína Mota de Vasconcelos Massafra, Poliana da Silva Lemos, João Lídio Vianez Júnior, Ricardo Ishak and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:546

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The World Health Organisation recommends the use of tenofovir-containing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as an additional Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention choice for men and women at substantial r...

    Authors: Cherise L. Naicker, Leila E. Mansoor, Halima Dawood, Kogieleum Naidoo, Denzhe Singo, David Matten, Carolyn Williamson and Quarraisha Abdool Karim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:532

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Currently recommended boosted protease-inhibitor (bPI) regimens may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular or chronic kidney diseases; in addition, boosted regimens are particularly associated wit...

    Authors: Collins C. Iwuji, Duncan Churchill, Stephen Bremner, Nicky Perry, Ye To, Debbie Lambert, Chloe Bruce, Laura Waters, Chloe Orkin and Anna Maria Geretti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:524

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Increased coagulation biomarkers are associated with poor outcomes among people living with HIV (PLHIV). There are few data available from African cohorts demonstrating the effect of antiretroviral therapy (AR...

    Authors: Chloe A. Teasdale, Cecilia Hernandez, Allison Zerbe, Duncan Chege, Mark Hawken and Wafaa M. El-Sadr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:508

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) can be challenging to diagnose, often requiring bronchoscopy. Since most patients suspected of PJP undergo imaging, we hypothesized that the findings of these studies could ...

    Authors: Jimmy M. Hsu, Aaron Hass, Marc-Alexandre Gingras, Jaron Chong, Cecilia Costiniuk, Nicole Ezer, Richard S. Fraser, Emily G. McDonald and Todd C. Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:492

    Content type: Research article

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  8. This paper introduces a comprehensive case management model uniting doctors, nurses, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in order to shorten the time from HIV diagnosis to initiation of antiviral therapy...

    Authors: Lili Dai, Xiaochun Yu, Ying Shao, Yali Wang, Zaicun Li, Jiangzhu Ye, Shaoli Bai, Xiaoling Guo, Jianyun Wang, Bin Su, Taiyi Jiang, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Sarah Robbins Scott, An Liu and Lijun Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:489

    Content type: Research article

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  9. People living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) have an increased susceptibility to develop non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Infection with HIV contributes to the dev...

    Authors: Carla M. T. Fourie, Shani Botha-Le Roux, Wayne Smith, Aletta E. Schutte, Yolandi Breet, Carina M. C. Mels, Lebo F. Gafane-Matemane, Leandi Lammertyn, Lisa Uys, Adele Burger, Jitcy S. Joseph, Nandu Goswami, Patrick De Boever and Hans Strijdom

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:473

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Although the United Nations program on HIV/AIDS 90–90-90-targets recommends achieving 90% of viral suppression for patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy by 2020, virological failure is still high and i...

    Authors: Chilot Desta Agegnehu, Mehari Woldemariam Merid and Melaku Kindie Yenit

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:460

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In line with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 target, Norway aims for at least 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) to know their HIV-status. We produced current estimates of t...

    Authors: Robert Whittaker, Kelsey K. Case, Øivind Nilsen, Hans Blystad, Susan Cowan, Hilde Kløvstad and Ard van Sighem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:451

    Content type: Research article

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  12. This study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of 150 mg rifabutin (RBT) taken every other day (every 48 h) versus 300 mg RBT taken every other day (E.O.D), both in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir...

    Authors: Seni Kouanda, Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Kadari Cisse, Tegwinde Rebeca Compaoré, Giorgia Sulis, Serge Diagbouga, Alberto Roggi, Grissoum Tarnagda, Paola Villani, Lassana Sangare, Jacques Simporé, Mario Regazzi and Alberto Matteelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:449

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Ordinal health longitudinal response variables have distributions that make them unsuitable for many popular statistical models that assume normality. We present a multilevel growth model that may be more suit...

    Authors: Zelalem G. Dessie, Temesgen Zewotir, Henry Mwambi and Delia North

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:447

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is one of the areas that most severely affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China, and virological failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is serious in this are...

    Authors: Dan Yuan, Meijing Liu, Peng Jia, Yiping Li, Yuling Huang, Li Ye, Laze Api, Maogang Chen, Liang Yao, Zixin Wang, Honglu Liu, Shu Liang and Shujuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:443

    Content type: Research article

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  15. There is paucity of evidence on the magnitude of HIV patients’ retention and attrition in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pooled magnitude of HIV patient clinical retention and attr...

    Authors: Nurilign Abebe Moges, Adesina Olubukola, Okunlola Micheal and Yemane Berhane

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:439

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Identification of people living with HIV is key in HIV prevention and control. Partner Notification service is a World Health Organization backed strategy of reaching out to sexual partners of people diagnosed...

    Authors: Rewel Mwangi Kariuki, Gilbert Koome Rithaa, Elvis Omondi Oyugi and Daniel Muya Gachathi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:432

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Current WHO guidelines (2018) recommend screening for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) in HIV-infected persons with CD4+ T cell counts< 100 cells/μL, followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy among CrAg positive (...

    Authors: Yao Li, Xiaojie Huang, Hui Chen, Yuanyuan Qin, Jianhua Hou, Aixin Li, Hao Wu, Xiaofeng Yan and Yaokai Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:410

    Content type: Review

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  18. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that primarily affects people with advanced HIV/AIDS and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. By far the most common presentati...

    Authors: Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel and Tamrat Abebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:407

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections. MSM and transgender people in Nepal experience considerable discrimination and...

    Authors: Margrethe Storm, Keshab Deuba, Jose Damas, Upendra Shrestha, Bir Rawal, Rajan Bhattarai and Gaetano Marrone

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:402

    Content type: Research article

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  20. HIV affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in approximately 50% of people living with HIV. It typically affects memory, learning, working memory, fine mo...

    Authors: Primrose Nyamayaro, Hetta Gouse, James Hakim, Reuben N. Robbins and Dixon Chibanda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:383

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Disclosure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive status significantly reduced the transmission of HIV; yet, it remains a challenge for many HIV patients. Disclosure serves plays a crucial role to raise awar...

    Authors: Fikadu Yehualashet, Eleni Tegegne, Mekbib Tessema and Mulualem Endeshaw

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:382

    Content type: Research article

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  22. After successful of antiretroviral therapy, highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) make HCV elimination reasonable in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. However, in achieving this target, there are still ba...

    Authors: Evy Yunihastuti, Bramantya Wicaksana, Andrian Wiraguna, Ainum Jhariah Hidayah, Fhadilla Amelia, Veritea Natali, Alvina Widhani, Andri Sanityoso Sulaiman and Juferdy Kurniawan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:372

    Content type: Research article

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  23. To date, very little information is available concerning the relationship between acanthosis nigricans (AN) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Authors: Alessandra Iacovelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Marcello Di Paolo, Giuseppe Soda, Ludovica De Vincentiis and Paolo Palange

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:360

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Tuberculosis (TB) and HV have been intertwined and makeup a deadly human syndemic worldwide, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Previous studies have reported different TB incidences and its ass...

    Authors: Demeke Geremew, Mulugeta Melku, Aklilu Endalamaw, Berhanu Woldu, Alebachew Fasil, Markos Negash, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Habtamu Geremew, Takele Teklu, Tekalign Deressa, Belay Tessema and Ulrich Sack

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:325

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are a cornerstone of HIV diagnosis and rely on good quality processing and interpretation, particularly in the era of test and treat. The Deki Reader (Fio Corporation®, Toronto, O...

    Authors: Lara Noble, Lesley Scott, Lynsey Stewart-Isherwood, Seponono John Molifi, Ian Sanne, Pedro Da Silva and Wendy Stevens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:320

    Content type: Research article

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  26. There is increasing evidence that HIV-1 genetic diversity can have an impact on drug resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiological situation of CRF65_cpx and the impact of natural pol...

    Authors: Yongjian Liu, Yu Zhang, Hanping Li, Xiaolin Wang, Lei Jia, Jingwan Han, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li and Lin Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:313

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Clinical manifestations of extraneural infection with the pork tapeworm Taenia solium typically affect the muscles, eyes, alimentary canal, and/or subcutaneous tissues. Children living with HIV are at increased r...

    Authors: David W. McCormick, Jason M. Bacha, Nader K. El-Mallawany, Carrie L. Kovarik, J. S. Slone and Liane R. Campbell

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:309

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Sexualized drug use (SDU) refers to use of any psychoactive substance before/during sexual intercourse. Chemsex is a subset of SDU, which is defined as the use of some specific psychoactive substances (methamp...

    Authors: Zixin Wang, Phoenix K. H. Mo, Mary Ip, Yuan Fang and Joseph T. F. Lau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:299

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death in people living with HIV (PLHIV). HIV-infected children are at a higher risk of TB infection and disease compared to...

    Authors: Serah Kajuju Ngugi, Peter Muiruri, Theresa Odero and Onesmus Gachuno

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:294

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In the context of global aging, HIV infection has become a new chronic disease and requires innovative models of care. Treating isolated comorbidities represents a useless and potentially harmful practice at a...

    Authors: Ines Pintassilgo, Matteo Cesari, Henrique N. Santos, Jovana Milic, Iacopo Franconi, Cristina Mussini, Nuno Marques and Giovanni Guaraldi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:290

    Content type: Correspondence

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  31. Haiti initiated the scale-up of HIV viral load (VL) testing in 2015–2016, with plans to achieve 100% coverage for all patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treatment of HIV/AIDS. In the absence of HIV d...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Scott Barnhart, Kesner Francois, Ermane Robin, Mireille Kalou, Georges Perrin, Lara Hall, Jean Baptiste Koama, Elisma Marinho, Jean Gabriel Balan, Jean Guy Honoré and Nancy Puttkammer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:283

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Fatigue is one of the most common and devastating Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) - related symptoms, with a varying prevalence in different study areas. In Ethiopia, there is a paucity of information on t...

    Authors: Tsiwaye Gebreyesus, Addisalem Belay, Gebretsadik Berhe and Gebremedhin Haile

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:280

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Tuberculosis (TB) disease is a common opportunistic infection among people living with HIV (PLHIV). WHO recommends at least 6 months of isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) to reduce the risk of active TB. It is...

    Authors: Masanja Robert, Jim Todd, Bernard J. Ngowi, Sia E. Msuya, Angella Ramadhani, Veryhel Sambu, Isaya Jerry, Martin R. Mujuni, Michael J. Mahande, James S. Ngocho and Werner Maokola

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:276

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Syphilis has been associated with an increase in HIV RNA and a temporary decline in CD4 T cell counts in people living with HIV who are not receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), and may be associated with ...

    Authors: Andrea Giacomelli, Valeria Micheli, Dario Cattaneo, Alessandro Mancon and Cristina Gervasoni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:273

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Modelling of longitudinal biomarkers and time-to-event data are important to monitor disease progression. However, these two variables are traditionally analyzed separately or time-varying Cox models are used....

    Authors: Nobuhle N. Mchunu, Henry G. Mwambi, Tarylee Reddy, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma and Kogieleum Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:256

    Content type: Research Article

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  36. Understanding factors driving virological failure, including the contribution of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM), is critical to ensuring HIV treatment remains effective. We examine the contribution of dru...

    Authors: Sheri A. Lippman, Alyssa C. Mooney, Adrian Puren, Gillian Hunt, Jessica S. Grignon, Lisa M. Prach, Hailey J. Gilmore, Hong-Ha M. Truong, Scott Barnhart and Teri Liegler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:248

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Patients infected with HIV may experience a succession of clinical stages before the disease diagnosis and their health status may be followed-up by tracking disease biomarkers. In this study, we present a joi...

    Authors: Zelalem G. Dessie, Temesgen Zewotir, Henry Mwambi and Delia North

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:246

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Adolescents living with HIV/AIDS (ALHIV) are a particularly vulnerable but often overlooked group in the HIV response despite additional disease management challenges.

    Authors: Jillian Murray, Katherine Whitehouse, Janet Ousley, Elkin Bermudez, Theint Thida Soe, Adelene Hilbig, Kyi Pyar Soe, Phyu Ei Mon, Kyaw Tint Tun, Win Le Shwe Sin Ei, Joanne Cyr, Carole Deglise and Iza Ciglenecki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:241

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Anemia is common among people living with HIV infection (PLWH) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. Information on risk factors for anemia incidence in the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) era i...

    Authors: B. N. Harding, B. M. Whitney, R. M. Nance, S. A. Ruderman, H. M. Crane, G. Burkholder, R. D. Moore, W. C. Mathews, J. J. Eron, P. W. Hunt, P. Volberding, B. Rodriguez, K. H. Mayer, M. S. Saag, M. M. Kitahata, S. R. Heckbert…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:238

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) deprives HIV-exposed infants the lifesaving care required and results in exposing HIV free infants to virus requisition risk. We aimed to determine the rate of LTFU, postnatal mother-t...

    Authors: Rogers Ankunda, Samuel Nambile Cumber, Catherine Atuhaire, Taseera Kabanda, Claude Ngwayu Nkfusai, Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy and Eleanor Turyakira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:235

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) typically infects oral or anogenital squamous epithelium and causes blisters and ulcerations. Here we reported an unusual case of HSV induced exuberant rectal inflammatory pseudotumo...

    Authors: Shi Bai, Justin A. Maykel and Michelle X. Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:234

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Early infant diagnosis is important for timely identification of HIV-infected infants and linkage to care. Testing at birth has been implemented to facilitate earlier diagnosis of HIV infection but may present...

    Authors: Catherine G. Sutcliffe, Jane N. Mutanga, Nkumbula Moyo, Jessica L. Schue, Mutinta Hamahuwa, Philip E. Thuma and William J. Moss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:227

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Cervical lymphadenopathy refers to a frequently observed clinical presentation in numerous pathological conditions. A wide spectrum of diseases can cause cervical lymphadenopathy, irrespective of the fact that...

    Authors: Lei Sun, Liang Zhang, Kun Yang, Xiang-mei Chen, Jia-min Chen, Jiang Xiao, Hong-xin Zhao, Zhi-yuan Ma, Li-ming Qi and Peng Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:224

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In Ethiopia, by the end of 2018, an estimated 690,000 people are infected with HIV and the annual cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is estimated to be between 4000 and 5000 with over 3.2 million people are ...

    Authors: Mehdi Mohebali and Yonas Yimam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:214

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Studies indicate that responses to HIV-2 treatment regimens are worse than responses to HIV-1 regimens during the first 12 months of treatment, but longer-term treatment responses are poorly described. We util...

    Authors: Peter A. Minchella, Christiane Adjé-Touré, Guoqing Zhang, Andre Tehe, Judith Hedje, Erin R. Rottinghaus, Natacha Kohemun, Micheline Aka, Karidia Diallo, G. Laissa Ouedraogo, Kevin M. De Cock and John N Nkengasong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:213

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Although married couples can be at an elevated risk of HIV infection, few studies have explored the risk factors for HIV infection at the couple-level. We explored the risk factors for HIV infection among marr...

    Authors: Anne M. Nabukenya, Aminah Nambuusi and Joseph K. B. Matovu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:198

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) demonstrates high efficacy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission to sexual partners. However, it is not clear if the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-1-serodiscorda...

    Authors: Lijun Sun, An Liu, Jianwei Li, Ying Shao, Qiuyun Li, Jiangzhu Ye, Hongwei Zhang, Zaicun Li and Hui Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:195

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Worldwide, there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the seroprevalence of undiagnosed chronic viral infections including HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among patients wit...

    Authors: Getinet Ayano, Kibrom Haile, Abel Tesfaye, Kelemua Haile, Sileshi Demelash, Mikias Tulu, Belachew Tsegaye, Melat Solomon, Alem Kebede, Aynalem Biru, Habte Birhanu, Gebresilassie Zenawi, Yodit Habtamu, Esias Kibron, Seneshet Eshetu, Meseret Sefiw…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:180

    Content type: Research article

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  49. The impacts of genetic polymorphisms on drug resistance mutations (DRMs) among various HIV-1 subtypes have long been debated. In this study, we aimed to analyze the natural polymorphisms and acquired DRM profi...

    Authors: Zesong Sun, Jinming Ouyang, Bin Zhao, Minghui An, Lin Wang, Haibo Ding and Xiaoxu Han

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:178

    Content type: Research article

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