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HIV and co-infections

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Early infant diagnosis of HIV infection is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas, leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Use of a point-of-care test would overcome many challeng...

    Authors: Catherine G. Sutcliffe, Jane Mutanga, Nkumbula Moyo, Abhishek K. Agarwal, Jessica L. Schue, Mutinta Hamahuwa, Kara M. Palamountain, Mark J. Fisher, Robert Elghanian, Philip E. Thuma and William J. Moss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. The plasma concentration of patients treated with efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg was found to exceed the upper limit of the proposed therapeutic window in most Chinese HIV-infected individuals; thus, dosage reduction ...

    Authors: Ling Xu, Wenxiu Peng, Xiaojing Song, Yanling Li, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Qiang Fu, Xiaoli Du, Wei Cao and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:112

    Content type: Research article

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  3. HIV-transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is found in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve populations infected with HIV-1 with TDR mutations and is important for guiding future first- and second-line ART regimens. ...

    Authors: Yibo Ding, Min Chen, Jibao Wang, Yuecheng Yang, Yi Feng, Lijie Wang, Song Duan, Qianru Lin, Hui Xing, Yanling Ma, Mengjie Han and Liying Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:93

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Understanding the demographic characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) infected through commercial heterosexual contact (CHC) or nonmarital noncommercial heterosexual contact (NMNCHC) is importan...

    Authors: Zhilong Dong, Liying Ma, Chang Cai, George Fu Gao and Fan Lyu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:71

    Content type: Research article

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  5. To effectively reduce vertical HIV transmission requires a reduction of HIV prevalence and incidence among pregnant women and a full understanding of its epidemiology. The study aimed to determine the prevalen...

    Authors: Sikhumbuzo A. Mabunda, Khuthala Sigovana, Wezile Chitha, Teke Apalata and Sibusiso Nomatshila

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Little evidence exists to comprehensively estimate adolescent viral suppression after initiation on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines adolescent progression along the HIV care c...

    Authors: Roxanna Haghighat, Elona Toska, Nontuthuzelo Bungane and Lucie Cluver

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV infected individuals is a serious threat to global efforts to combat tuberculosis. Inconsistent findings on the association between HIV infection and MDR-TB wer...

    Authors: Zeeba Zahra Sultana, Farhana Ul Hoque, Joseph Beyene, Md. Akhlak-Ul-Islam, Md Hasinur Rahman Khan, Shakil Ahmed, Delwer Hossain Hawlader and Ahmed Hossain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:86

  8. In Morocco, of the estimated 29,000 people living with HIV in 2011, only 20% were aware of their HIV status. More than half of diagnoses were at the AIDS stage. We assumed that people who were unaware of their...

    Authors: Latifa Marih, Victoire Sawras, Juliette Pavie, Mustapha Sodqi, Mourad Malmoussi, Noura Tassi, Rajaa Bensghir, Samira Nani, Ahd Oulad Lahsen, Didier Laureillard, Kamal Marhoum El Filali, Karen Champenois and Laurence Weiss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  9. HIV infection is a major health problem in Russia. We aimed to assess HIV prevalence in different population groups and to compare the characteristics of 4th generation immunoassays from Abbott, Bio-Rad, Vecto...

    Authors: D. E. Kireev, V. P. Chulanov, G. A. Shipulin, A. V. Semenov, E. V. Tivanova, N. M. Kolyasnikova, E. B. Zueva, V. V. Pokrovskiy and C. Galli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective and well-tolerated in adults and is rapidly being adopted globally. We describe the design of the ODYSSEY trial which evaluates the eff...

    Authors: Cecilia L. Moore, Anna Turkova, Hilda Mujuru, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Abbas Lugemwa, Cissy M. Kityo, Linda N. Barlow-Mosha, Tim R. Cressey, Avy Violari, Ebrahim Variava, Mark F. Cotton, Moherndran Archary, Alexandra Compagnucci, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Osee Behuhuma, Yacine Saϊdi…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:5

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Undernutrition is one of the most common problems among people living with HIV, contributing to premature death and the development of comorbidities within this population. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the imp...

    Authors: Animut Alebel, Daniel Demant, Pammla Petrucka and David Sibbritt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1

    Content type: Research article

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  12. This study aims to evaluate specific risk factors influencing prognosis of HIV-infected patients with toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) in order to develop a prognostic risk scoring system for them.

    Authors: Yao Li, Yan-Ming Zeng, Min Liu, Yan-Qiu Lu, Xue-Yan Liu, Yu-Lin Zhang, Zhong-Sheng Jiang, Tong-Tong Yang, Yan Sun, Ke Lan and Yao-Kai Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:923

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Despite the profound impact of antiretroviral therapy in the control of AIDS mortality, central nervous system opportunistic infections remains a significant burden in AIDS patients. This retrospective study a...

    Authors: Liang Wu, Jiang Xiao, Yangzi Song, Guiju Gao and Hongxin Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:912

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Plasma proteins are known to interfere the drug metabolism during therapy. As limited information is available regarding the role of plasma proteins in HIV drug resistance during ART in HIV/AIDS patients, the ...

    Authors: Sushanta Kumar Barik, Keshar Kunja Mohanty, Ashok Kumar Mohanty, Preeti Rawat, G. Gopal, Deepa Bisht, Shripad A. Patil, Rananjay Singh, Devesh Sharma, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Rekha Tandon, Tej Pal Singh and Srikanta Jena

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:898

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Surgical site infection (SSI) is a devastating complication of orthopedic surgery, related with increased morbidity and mortality. This study was performed with the aim to compare the SSI rate in human immunod...

    Authors: Rui Ma, Jie He, Biao Xu, Changsong Zhao, Yao Zhang, Xin Li, Sheng Sun and Qiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:896

    Content type: Research article

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  16. There is little information about the frequency of Leishmania infection in asymptomatic people living with HIV (PLWH) and about the performance of laboratory diagnostic methods in coinfected patients in Latin Ame...

    Authors: M. A. Cunha, B. J. Celeste, N. Kesper, M. Fugimori, M. M. Lago, A. S. Ibanes, L. M. Ouki, E. A. Simões Neto, F. F. Fonseca, M. A. L. Silva, W. L. Barbosa Júnior and J. A. L. Lindoso

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:885

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Altered fat distribution and chronic inflammation are found in both persons living with HIV (PLWH) and persons with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). ...

    Authors: Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Julie Abildgaard, Marco Gelpi, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Lilian Kolte, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid, Birgitte Lindegaard and Susanne Dam Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:882

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Effective self-management is an important consideration for adults living with HIV on therapy to enable people to maintain their health and well-being whilst living with chronic HIV. Although numerous attempts...

    Authors: Habtamu Areri, Amy Marshall and Gillian Harvey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:879

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The third United Nations Sustainable Development Goal includes a commitment to end AIDS-related death by 2030. In line with the Goal, Option B+ programs hold a great promise for eliminating vertical transmissi...

    Authors: Mesfin Wudu Kassaw, Samuel T. Matula, Ayele Mamo Abebe, Ayelign Mengesha Kassie and Biruk Beletew Abate

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:876

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Pakistan is facing a growing population of people living with human immunodeficiency (HIV). In this randomized controlled trial, we investigate if a pharmacist-led intervention can increase adherence to antire...

    Authors: Zeenat Fatima Chatha, Usman Rashid, Sharon Olsen, Fakhar ud Din, Amjad Khan, Komal Nawaz, Siew Hua Gan and Gul Majid Khan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:874

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Tuberculosis (TB) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are leading causes of death globally. However, little is known about the long-term mortality risk and the timeline of death in those co-infected...

    Authors: Zhigang Zheng, Eric J. Nehl, Chongxing Zhou, Jianjun Li, Zhouhua Xie, Zijun Zhou and Hao Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:873

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Brazil has many people living with HIV (PLWH) who are unaware of their serostatus. The public health system has recently added HIV self-testing (HIVST) for key populations such as men who have sex with men (MS...

    Authors: Laio Magno, Andrea Fachel Leal, Daniela Knauth, Inês Dourado, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Elis Passos Santana, Tiago Jordão, Gustavo Machado Rocha, Maria Amélia Veras, Carl Kendall, Alexandre Kerr Pontes, Ana Maria de Brito and Ligia Kerr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:865

    Content type: Research article

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  23. HIV, HBV and HCV infections continue to represent major health concerns, especially among key at-risk populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWIDs), transgender women (TG...

    Authors: Ruxandra Calin, Véronique Massari, Gilles Pialoux, Nelly Reydellet, Eve Plenel, Carole Chauvin, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Nesrine Day, Georges Kreplak, Anaenza Freire Maresca, Nicolas Derche, Sandra Louis, Stanislas Pol, Véronique Doré, Christine Rouzioux and Pierre Chauvin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:851

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The objective of the study was to describe the evolution of chronic non-AIDS related diseases and their risk factors, in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) in the French ANRS CO3 Aquitaine prospective cohort, ob...

    Authors: F. Bonnet, F. Le Marec, O. Leleux, Y. Gerard, D. Neau, E. Lazaro, P. Duffau, O. Caubet, M. A. Vandenhende, P. Mercie, C. Cazanave and F. Dabis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:850

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is an opportunistic infection in HIV-infected people. Intraocular or intravenous ganciclovir was gold standard for treatment; however, oral valganciclovir replaced this in high...

    Authors: Jillian Murray, Adelene Hilbig, Theint Thida Soe, Win Le Shwe Sin Ei, Kyi Pyar Soe and Iza Ciglenecki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:842

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province of South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV infection in the world. Viral load (VL) testing is a crucial tool for clinical and programmatic monitoring. Within uMkhanyakud...

    Authors: J. Brijkumar, B. A. Johnson, Y. Zhao, J. Edwards, P. Moodley, K. Pathan, S. Pillay, K. G. Castro, H. Sunpath, D. R. Kuritzkes, M. Y. S. Moosa and V. C. Marconi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:836

    Content type: Research article

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  27. HIV self-testing (HIVST) can be performed using directly assisted and unassisted approaches in facilities or communities to reach different populations. The aim of this study was to compare the practicability ...

    Authors: Serge Tonen-Wolyec, Charles Kayembe Tshilumba, Salomon Batina-Agasa, Roland Marini Djang’eing’a, Marie-Pierre Hayette and Laurent Belec

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:830

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Globally, the majority of people living with HIV have no or only limited access to HIV drug resistance testing to guide the selection of antiretroviral drugs. This is of particular concern for children and ado...

    Authors: Jennifer Anne Brown, Isaac Ringera, Ezekiel Luoga, Molisana Cheleboi, Namvua Kimera, Josephine Muhairwe, Buntshi Paulin Kayembe, Mosa Molapo Hlasoa, Lorraine Kabundi, Ching Wey David Yav, Buoang Mothobi, Lineo Thahane, Alain Amstutz, Nadine Bachmann, Getrud Joseph Mollel, Moniek Bresser…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:773

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. CRF_BC recombinants, including CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, were considered the predominant subtypes in China. Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form CRF 85_BC in Southwest China in 2016, this BC ...

    Authors: Ling Su, Yi Feng, Shu Liang, Yali Zeng, Yiping Li, Hong Yang, Li Ye, Qiushi Wang, Dongbin Wei, Dan Yuan, Wenhong Lai and Linglin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:772

    Content type: Research article

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  30. COVID-19 is novel infectious disease with an evolving understanding of its epidemiology and clinical manifestations. Severe cases developed life-threatening complications, such as respiratory failure, shock, a...

    Authors: Jiu-Cong Zhang, Xiao-Hui Yu, Xiao-Han Ding, Hao-Yu Ma, Xiao-Qing Cai, Sheng-Chao Kang and Da-Wei Xiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:771

    Content type: Case report

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  31. HIV infection exacerbates the prognosis of HCV infection, with a faster progression of hepatitis. Hepatic fibrosis is the major disruption of the hepatic tissue architecture characterized by anarchic depositio...

    Authors: Rodolphe Dobseu, Aubin Nanfack, Mathurin Kowo, Georgia Ambada, Rachel Kamgaing, Collins Chenwi, Nadine Fainguem, Aude Ka’e, Eric Ngangoum, Samuel Sosso, Clergé Tchiegang and Alexis Ndjolo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:758

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) dramatically increases the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). Several studies have indicated that co-infection with TB increases the risk of HIV ...

    Authors: Vivek Gopalakrishnan, Eliezer Bose, Usha Nair, Yuwei Cheng and Musie Ghebremichael

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:756

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus is one of the major global health challenges of the twenty-first century. In high burden HIV/TB countries, the spread of COVID-19 am...

    Authors: Jacques L. Tamuzi, Birhanu T. Ayele, Constance S. Shumba, Olatunji O. Adetokunboh, Jeannine Uwimana-Nicol, Zelalem T. Haile, Joseph Inugu and Peter S. Nyasulu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:744

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The surge of methamphetamine use has been a complicating factor compounding the steeply increasing number of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. Infection from blood-borne viruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV...

    Authors: Yilin Cai, Zheng Dai, Sijin Wen and Ruchi Bhandari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:742

    Content type: Research article

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  35. In accordance with international guidance for tuberculosis (TB) prevention, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children aged 12 months and older who are living w...

    Authors: Olivia F. Hunter, Furaha Kyesi, Amrit Kaur Ahluwalia, Zeinabou Niamé Daffé, Patricia Munseri, C. Fordham von Reyn and Lisa V. Adams

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:738

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:784

  36. HIV continues to be the main determinant morbidity with high mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a high number of patients being late presenters with advanced HIV. Clinical management of advanced HIV p...

    Authors: F. Mangana, L. D. Massaquoi, R. Moudachirou, R. Harrison, T. Kaluangila, G. Mucinya, N. Ntabugi, G. Van Cutsem, R. Burton and P. Isaakidis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:734

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Viral load (VL) testing is the gold-standard approach for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment success and virologic failure, but uptake is suboptimal in resource-limited and rural settings....

    Authors: Rita Nakalega, Nelson Mukiza, George Kiwanuka, Ronald Makanga-Kakumba, Robert Menge, Hajira Kataike, Joel Maena, Carolyne Akello, Patience Atuhaire, Flavia Matovu-Kiweewa, Cynthia Ndikuno-Kuteesa, Henry Debem and Andrew Mujugira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:727

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Commencing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately following HIV diagnosis (Option B+), has greatly improved maternal-infant health. Thus, large and increasing numbers of HIV-infected women are on AR...

    Authors: Kerina Duri, Felicity Z. Gumbo, Privilege T. Munjoma, Precious Chandiwana, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Asaph Ziruma, Andrew Macpherson, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Exnevia Gomo, Benjamin Misselwitz and Lovemore Ronald Mazengera

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:725

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. Human Immunodeficiency virus continues to be a major global health problem infecting 75 million and killing 32 million people since the beginning of the epidemic. It badly hit Sub Saharan Africa than any count...

    Authors: Teshome Kabeta Dadi, Merga Belina Feyasa and Mamo Nigatu Gebre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:714

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In sub-Saharan Africa, considerable HIV-burden exists among women. Anti-retroviral (ARV) based prevention products could decrease this burden, and their uptake could be increased if they also protect against p...

    Authors: Peter Vickerman, Matthew Quaife, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Robyn Eakle and Fern Terris-Prestholt

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:704

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Studies have demonstrated that health care students and practitioners are not immune to stigma towards people living with HIV (PLHIV). This attitude could lead to poor quality of care if it remains uncorrected...

    Authors: Mutiara Tirta Prabandari Lintang Kusuma, Tandalayo Kidd, Nancy Muturi, Sandra B. Procter, Linda Yarrow and Wei-Wen Hsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:663

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Although women comprise 33% of the HIV-1-carriers in Israel, they have not previously been considered a risk group requiring special attention. Immigration waves from countries in Africa and in East Europe may...

    Authors: Tali Wagner, Karen Olshtain-Pops, Marina Wax, Olivia Horwitz, Rachel Shirazi, Yael Gozlan, Hadar Volnowitz, Ella Mendelson, Itzchak Levy and Orna Mor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:660

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a multisystem disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and severity. Studies investigating potential effects of co-morbid human immunodeficiency virus (...

    Authors: André Rolim Belisário, Paula F. Blatyta, Diana Vivanco, Claudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Anna Bárbara Carneiro-Proietti, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Cesar de Almeida-Neto, Paula Loureiro, Cláudia Máximo, Sheila de Oliveira Garcia Mateos, Miriam V. Flor-Park, Daniela de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Rosimere Afonso Mota, Thelma T. Gonçalez, Thomas J. Hoffmann, Shannon Kelly…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:638

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The drug resistance and the virologic failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are quite severe in Liangshan. A better understanding of the virologic failure of ART and the HIV-1 transmission network dynamics i...

    Authors: Dan Yuan, Meijing Liu, Yiping Li, Peng Jia, Ling Su, Li Ye, Yan Zhang, Pan Ling, Chang Zhou, Shu Liang, Hong Yang, Honglu Liu and Shujuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:631

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Tuberculosis is a serious health risk, for people living with human immune deficiency virus worldwide, and the burden of TB/HIV infection is still high in Ethiopia in particular. Therefore, the aim of this stu...

    Authors: Habtamu Belew, Moges Wubie, Getaye Tizazu, Abebaw Bitew and Tesfa Birlew

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:593

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV in Malawi. Early prevention efforts in Malawi have been largely focused on preventing heterosexual and vertical transmission of HIV, and MS...

    Authors: Yuan Zhao, Amrita Rao, Andrea L. Wirtz, Eric Umar, Gift Trapence, Vincent Jumbe, Sosthenes Ketende, Dunker Kamba, Chris Beyrer and Stefan Baral

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:591

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Scale-up of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment for HIV/HCV coinfected individuals is occurring in Spain, the vast majority (> 85%) with a reported history of injecting drug use and a smaller population of co-in...

    Authors: Britt Skaathun, Annick Borquez, Antonio Rivero-Juarez, Sanjay R. Mehta, Francisco Tellez, Manuel Castaño-Carracedo, Dolores Merino, Rosario Palacios, Juan Macías, Antonio Rivero and Natasha K. Martin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:588

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Limited data are available on the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) or Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on renal function in Ethiopians. We aimed to assess factors associated with renal function chan...

    Authors: Daniel Yilma, Alemseged Abdissa, Pernille Kæstel, Markos Tesfaye, Mette F. Olsen, Tsinuel Girma, Christian Ritz, Henrik Friis, Åse B. Andersen and Ole Kirk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:582

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Despite the significant decline in the prevalence of HIV in Tanzania, the prevalence rates in Mbeya, Iringa, and Njombe regions are higher than the national average and have remained stable for years. The curr...

    Authors: Habakkuk Mwakyula Issakwisa, Gloria Reginald Mbwile, Godlove Fred Mbwanji, David Daniel Nassoro, Nyanda Elias Ntinginya and Anthony Ambikile Nsojo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:577

    Content type: Research article

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