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HIV and co-infections

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of HIV and HIV-associated infections in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. This section also aims to publish studies on the adverse events of HAART and non HIV-related comorbidities in the HAART era.

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  1. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a hidden but emerging population susceptible to HIV infection against a background of rapidly increasing HIV prevalence in China. Low HIV testing levels and multiple partner...

    Authors: Eric P F Chow, Jun Jing, Yuji Feng, Dai Min, Jun Zhang, David P Wilson, Xiaohu Zhang and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:549

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Superinfection with drug resistant HIV strains could potentially contribute to compromised therapy in patients initially infected with drug-sensitive virus and receiving antiretroviral therapy. To investigate ...

    Authors: István Bartha, Matthias Assel, Peter MA Sloot, Maurizio Zazzi, Carlo Torti, Eugen Schülter, Andrea De Luca, Anders Sönnerborg, Ana B Abecasis, Kristel Van Laethem, Andrea Rosi, Jenny Svärd, Roger Paredes, David AMC van de Vijver, Anne-Mieke Vandamme and Viktor Müller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:537

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The role of copy number variation of the CCL3L1 gene, encoding MIP1α, in contributing to the host variation in susceptibility and response to HIV infection is controversial. Here we analyse a sub-Saharan African ...

    Authors: Eleni Aklillu, Linda Odenthal-Hesse, Jennifer Bowdrey, Abiy Habtewold, Eliford Ngaimisi, Getnet Yimer, Wondwossen Amogne, Sabina Mugusi, Omary Minzi, Eyasu Makonnen, Mohammed Janabi, Ferdinand Mugusi, Getachew Aderaye, Robert Hardwick, Beiyuan Fu, Maria Viskaduraki…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:536

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, espec...

    Authors: Benn KD Sartorius, Matthew F Chersich, Mary Mwaura, Nicolas Meda, Marleen Temmerman, Marie Louise Newell, Timothy MM Farley and Stanley Luchters

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:522

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased dramatically in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 560,000 people had access to ART by the end of 2011. This scaling up of ART has raised challenges to the Kenya...

    Authors: Michael Kiptoo, James Brooks, Raphael W Lihana, Paul Sandstrom, Zipporah Ng’ang’a, Joyceline Kinyua, Nancy Lagat, Fredrick Okoth and Elijah M Songok

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:517

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Improved tests to diagnose latent TB infection (LTBI) are needed. We sought to evaluate the performance of two commercially available interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) compared to the tuberculin skin tes...

    Authors: Nikoloz Chkhartishvili, Russell R Kempker, Natia Dvali, Lela Abashidze, Lali Sharavdze, Pati Gabunia, Henry M Blumberg, Carlos del Rio and Tengiz Tsertsvadze

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:513

    Content type: Research article

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  7. HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) surveillance is usually conducted by sampling from a large population. However, overall TDR prevalence results may be inaccurate for many individual clinical setting. We a...

    Authors: James I Brooks, Harrison Niznick, Marianna Ofner, Harriet Merks and Jonathan B Angel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:509

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Maraviroc is an HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist that has shown good efficacy and tolerability in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients harboring CCR5-tropic virus. The use of Maraviroc in treatment si...

    Authors: Genny Meini, Angelo Materazzi, Francesco Saladini, Andrea Rosi, Ilaria Vicenti, Michele Mancini, Antonella Pirazzoli, Cinzia Caudai and Maurizio Zazzi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:508

    Content type: Technical advance

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  9. Administration of rifampicin along with nevirapine reduces the plasma concentration of nevirapine in human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals with concomitant tuberculosis (HIV-TB patients). Nevirapin...

    Authors: Sanjeev Sinha, Puroshottam Raghunandan, Rahul Chandrashekhar, Surendra K Sharma, Sanjiv Kumar, Sahajal Dhooria, Meera Ekka, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Sanjay Ranjan, Hafeez Ahmad, Jyotish Chandra Samantaray, Srinivasaraghavan Venkatesh, Bharat Bhushan Rewari, Nawaid Hussain Khan and Ravindra Mohan Pandey

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:482

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Sexually transmitted diseases and most notably syphilis-infections are rising amongst men who have sex with men. In HIV-co-infected patients, an accelerated clinical course of syphilis neurological involvement...

    Authors: Christoph D Spinner, Sebastian Noe, Christiane Schwerdtfeger, Antonia Todorova, Jochen Gaa, Roland M Schmid, Dirk H Busch and Michael Neuenhahn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:481

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in resource-limited countries, with limited capacity for CD4 and HIV viral load monitoring, presents a unique challenge. We determined the effectiveness of first-line ART ...

    Authors: Oliver Barry, Jonathan Powell, Lorna Renner, Evelyn Y Bonney, Meghan Prin, William Ampofo, Jonas Kusah, Bamenla Goka, Kwamena WC Sagoe, Veronika Shabanova and Elijah Paintsil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:476

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential impact of the European policy of testing for HIV all individuals presenting with an indicator disease, to prevent late diagnosis of HIV. We report on a retrosp...

    Authors: Paola Scognamiglio, Giacomina Chiaradia, Gabriella De Carli, Massimo Giuliani, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Stefano Aviani Barbacci, Anna Rita Buonomini, Susanna Grisetti, Alessandro Sampaolesi, Angela Corpolongo, Nicoletta Orchi, Vincenzo Puro, Giuseppe Ippolito and Enrico Girardi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:473

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incide...

    Authors: Signe W Worm, Mark Bower, Peter Reiss, Fabrice Bonnet, Matthew Law, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Antonella d’Arminio Monforte, Donald I Abrams, Andrew Grulich, Eric Fontas, Ole Kirk, Hansjakob Furrer, Stephane De Wit, Andrew Phillips, Jens D Lundgren and Caroline A Sabin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:471

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Penicilliosis marneffei is increasingly observed in individuals without HIV infection. This study aimed to compare the clinical and laboratory features among HIV infected and uninfected individuals with penici...

    Authors: Rathakarn Kawila, Romanee Chaiwarith and Khuanchai Supparatpinyo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:464

    Content type: Research article

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  15. HIV resistance affects virological response to therapy and efficacy of prophylaxis in mother-to-child-transmission. The study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV primary resistance in pregnant women naïve to ...

    Authors: Francesco Vairo, Emanuele Nicastri, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Zainab Chaula, Boniface Nguhuni, Nazario Bevilacqua, Federica Forbici, Alessandra Amendola, Lavinia Fabeni, Pasquale De Nardo, Carlo Federico Perno, Angela Cannas, Calistus Sakhoo, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi and Giuseppe Ippolito

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:439

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV inf...

    Authors: Maria Xiridou, Henrike J Vriend, Anna K Lugner, Jacco Wallinga, Johannes S Fennema, Jan M Prins, Suzanne E Geerlings, Bart JA Rijnders, Maria Prins, Henry JC de Vries, Maarten J Postma, Maaike G van Veen, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff and Marianne AB van der Sande

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:436

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The immunologic status of a newly diagnosed HIV positive population in the era of antiretroviral therapy in China has not been extensively evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to evaluate the CD4 c...

    Authors: Yinzhong Shen, Hongzhou Lu, Zhenyan Wang, Tangkai Qi and Jiangrong Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:429

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but its role as a predictive marker in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. ...

    Authors: Andrea De Luca, Katleen de Gaetano Donati, Manuela Colafigli, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Amalia De Curtis, Andrea Gori, Laura Sighinolfi, Andrea Giacometti, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Alessandro D’Avino, Licia Iacoviello, Roberto Cauda and Antonella D’Arminio Monforte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:414

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Natural killer (NK) cells have emerged as pivotal players in innate immunity, especially in the defense against viral infections and tumors. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) – an important recogniti...

    Authors: Yongjun Jiang, Ou Chen, Chen Cui, Bin Zhao, Xiaoxu Han, Zining Zhang, Jing Liu, Junjie Xu, Qinghai Hu, Christina Liao and Hong Shang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:405

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Adherence to Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a major predictor of the success of HIV/AIDS treatment. Good adherence to HAART is necessary to achieve the best virologic response, lower the risk ...

    Authors: Afiong O Oku, Eme T Owoaje, Olusimbo K Ige and Angela Oyo-ita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:401

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Assessing whether hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with increased inflammation is complex. The liver, integral to inflammatory biomarker synthesis, is compro...

    Authors: Kaku A Armah, Emily K Quinn, Debbie M Cheng, Russell P Tracy, Jason V Baker, Jeffrey H Samet and Matthew S Freiberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:399

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon pathology characterized by the acute onset of headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, seizures and focal neurological deficits. It was init...

    Authors: Sarah C Sasson, Aileen Oon, Joga Chagantri, Bruce J Brew and Andrew Carr

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:396

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Adherence is one of the most important determinants of viral suppression and drug resistance in HIV-infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Authors: Sylvia Kiwuwa-Muyingo, Hannu Oja, Ann Sarah Walker, Pauliina Ilmonen, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Mambule, Andrew Reid, Peter Mugyenyi and Jim Todd

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:395

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Despite increases in HIV testing, only a fraction of people newly diagnosed with HIV infection enter the care system and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. We report on the design and initi...

    Authors: Ingrid V Bassett, Janet Giddy, Christine E Chaisson, Douglas Ross, Laura M Bogart, Sharon M Coleman, Tessa Govender, Marion Robine, Alison Erlwanger, Kenneth A Freedberg, Jeffrey N Katz, Rochelle P Walensky and Elena Losina

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:390

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has produced significant changes in mortality of HIV-infected persons. Our objective was to estimate mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios and excess mortalit...

    Authors: Victoria Hernando, Belen Alejos, Susana Monge, Juan Berenguer, Lourdes Anta, David Vinuesa, Rosario Palacios, Roberto Muga, Santiago Moreno and Inma Jarrin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:382

    Content type: Research article

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  26. HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of Herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. Prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HZ incidence in HIV-infected individuals ranged from 2.9–5.1/100 person-ye...

    Authors: Klaus Jansen, Burkhard Haastert, Claudia Michalik, Adrienne Guignard, Stefan Esser, Stephan Dupke, Andreas Plettenberg, Adriane Skaletz-Rorowski and Norbert H Brockmeyer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:372

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Understanding about who acquires new HIV infection and the determinants of why some persons get infected and others do not is fundamental to controlling HIV in the population. We assess HIV incidence and its a...

    Authors: Lalit Dandona, G Anil Kumar, Vemu Lakshmi, G Md Mushtaq Ahmed, Mohammed Akbar, Sri P Ramgopal, Talasila Sudha, Michel Alary and Rakhi Dandona

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:327

    Content type: Research article

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  28. To determine if tropism for CXCR4 or CCR5 correlates with cellular HIV DNA load, residual viraemia and CD4 count in 219 successfully treated naive subjects with HIV infection enrolled in five infectious diseas...

    Authors: Saverio Giuseppe Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Renzo Scaggiante, Mario Cruciani, Roberto Ferretto, Vinicio Manfrin, Sandro Panese, Monica Basso, Caterina Boldrin, Stefania Bressan, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni and Giorgio Palù

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:314

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) regimen on renal function in Chinese HIV-infected patients.

    Authors: Ying Cao, Yang Han, Jing Xie, Qu Cui, Lixia Zhang, Yijia Li, Yanling Li, Xiaojing Song, Ting Zhu and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:301

    Content type: Research article

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  30. HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience deep and early disorders in fat and bone metabolism, leading to concomitant changes in fat mass and bone mineral density.

    Authors: Eric Bonnet, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Anne Genoux, Laurence Mabile, Florian Busato, Martine Obadia, François Prévoteau, Bruno Marchou, Patrice Massip, Fabrice Marion-Latard, Cyrille Delpierre, Jacques Bernard and Bertrand Perret

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:293

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer of people living with HIV (PLHIV). Many of these deaths occur in developing countries. This study aimed at determining the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among...

    Authors: Kefyalew Addis Alene, Ansha Nega and Belaynew Wasie Taye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:292

    Content type: Research article

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  32. This study assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing and counseling services and the predictor characteristics of these outcomes among individuals who pres...

    Authors: Gabriella Di Giuseppe, Alessandra Sessa, Silvana Mollo, Natascia Corbisiero and Italo F Angelillo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:277

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of death in people with AIDS. Factors contributing to atherosclerosis include traditional risk factors, antiretrovirals and inflammatory factors related to HIV i...

    Authors: Valéria Maria Gonçalves Albuquerque, Josefina Claudia Zírpoli, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão Albuquerque, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes and Heloísa Ramos Lacerda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:274

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Rates of cardiovascular disease are higher among HIV-infected patients as a result of the complex interplay between traditional risk factors, HIV-related inflammatory and immunologic changes, and effects of an...

    Authors: Princy Kumar, Edwin DeJesus, Gregory Huhn, Louis Sloan, Catherine Butkus Small, Howard Edelstein, Franco Felizarta, Ritche Hao, Lisa Ross, Britt Stancil, Keith Pappa and Belinda Ha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:269

    Content type: Research article

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  35. HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an ...

    Authors: Susan M Graham, Nimerta Rajwans, Kenneth A Tapia, Walter Jaoko, Benson BA Estambale, R Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh and W Conrad Liles

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:263

    Content type: Research article

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  36. High prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and lack of information, skills and preventive support mean that, adolescents face high risks of HIV/AIDS. This study applied the information-motivation-behavioral ski...

    Authors: Yong Cai, Xiuxia Ye, Rong Shi, Gang Xu, Lixiao Shen, Jia Ren and Hong Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:262

    Content type: Research article

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  37. HIV infection, anti-tuberculosis and efavirenz therapy are associated with neuropsychological effects. We evaluated the influence of rifampicin cotreatment, efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics on n...

    Authors: Jackson K Mukonzo, Alphonse Okwera, Neoline Nakasujja, Henry Luzze, Deogratious Sebuwufu, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng, Paul Waako, Lars L Gustafsson and Eleni Aklillu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:261

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Although some studies show higher antiretroviral concentrations in women compared to men, data are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive women to determine if protease inhibitor (PI) an...

    Authors: Mona Rafik Loutfy, Sharon Lynn Walmsley, Marina Barbara Klein, Janet Raboud, Alice Lin-in Tseng, Sandra Lauren Blitz, Neora Pick, Brian Conway, Jonathan Benjamin Angel, Anita Rochelle Rachlis, Kevin Gough, Jeff Cohen, David Haase, David Burdge, Fiona Mary Smaill, Alexandra de Pokomandy…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:256

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Disease progression in the absence of therapy varies significantly in HIV-1 infected individuals. Both viral and host cellular molecules are implicated; however, the exact role of these factors and/or the mech...

    Authors: Karolina Duskova, Pruthvi Nagilla, Hai-Son Le, Priyadarshini Iyer, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Jeremy Martinson, Ziv Bar-Joseph, William Buchanan, Charles Rinaldo and Velpandi Ayyavoo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:250

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment is critical for suppression of viral replication, reduced destruction of CD4 cells, prevention of viral resistance, promotion of immune reconstitution and slowed disease prog...

    Authors: Negassie Berhe, Desalegn Tegabu and Mekuriaw Alemayehu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:233

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive bioma...

    Authors: Andreas Knudsen, Holger Jon Møller, Terese L Katzenstein, Jan Gerstoft, Niels Obel, Gitte Kronborg, Thomas Benfield, Andreas Kjaer and Anne-Mette Lebech

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:230

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Co-receptor tropism (CRT) in patients with a long history of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral treatment has been rarely investigated to date. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of X4 and R...

    Authors: Annalisa Saracino, Laura Monno, Luigia Scudeller, Giuseppe Bruno, Nicoletta Ladisa, Grazia Punzi, Anna Volpe, Antonella Lagioia and Gioacchino Angarano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:220

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Metabolic abnormalities are common in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the biochemical details and underlying mechanisms of these disorders have not been defined.

    Authors: Edana Cassol, Vikas Misra, Alexander Holman, Anupa Kamat, Susan Morgello and Dana Gabuzda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:203

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In France, 1/3 HIV-infected patients is diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. We describe missed opportunities for earlier HIV testing in newly-HIV-diagnosed patients.

    Authors: Karen Champenois, Anthony Cousien, Lise Cuzin, Stéphane Le Vu, Sylvie Deuffic-Burban, Emilie Lanoy, Karine Lacombe, Olivier Patey, Pascal Béchu, Marcel Calvez, Caroline Semaille and Yazdan Yazdanpanah

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:200

    Content type: Research article

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  45. This study aimed to investigate the level of awareness of and factors associated with major infectious diseases in rural China and to provide the most recent baseline data for the prevention and control of the...

    Authors: He Liu, Mei Li, Mingjuan Jin, Fangyuan Jing, Hui Wang and Kun Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:192

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Deep neck infections (DNIs) in HIV-infected patients often produce severe complications, even death. Data on the incidence rates and risks of DNI among HIV-infected patients are scarce, particularly with the w...

    Authors: Ching-Feng Liu, Shih-Feng Weng, Yung-Song Lin, Chih-Sheng Lin, Ching-Feng Lien and Jhi-Joung Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:183

    Content type: Research article

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  47. The human APOBEC3G (A3G) protein activity is associated with innate immunity against HIV-1 by inducing high rates of guanosines to adenosines (G-to-A) mutations (viz., hypermutation) in the viral DNA. If hypermut...

    Authors: Maria Clara Bizinoto, Shiori Yabe, Élcio Leal, Hirohisa Kishino, Leonardo de Oliveira Martins, Mariana Leão de Lima, Edsel Renata Morais, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz and Luiz Mário Janini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:173

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). There have been relatively few systematic analyses of factors that promote or inhibit adherence to antire...

    Authors: Hoa M Do, Michael P Dunne, Masaya Kato, Cuong V Pham and Kinh V Nguyen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:154

    Content type: Research article

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