Skip to main content

Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

Page 1 of 26

  1. Since the novel coronavirus disease outbreak, over 179.7 million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, including the population living in dengue-endemic regions, particularly Latin America and Sou...

    Authors: Heidi Luise Schulte, José Diego Brito-Sousa, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães Lacerda, Luciana Ansaneli Naves, Eliana Teles de Gois, Mariana Sirimarco Fernandes, Valéria Paes Lima, Carlos Henrique Reis Esselin Rassi, Clara Correia de Siracusa, Lizandra Moura Paravidine Sasaki, Selma Regina Penha Silva Cerqueira, Cleandro Pires de Albuquerque, Ana Paula Monteiro Gomides Reis, Ciro Martins Gomes, Patricia Shu Kurizky, Licia Maria Henrique da Mota…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:727

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. COVID-19 has affected almost every country in the world, especially in terms of health system capacity and economic burden. People from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) often face interaction between human immunodefic...

    Authors: Nandu Goswami, Per Morten Fredriksen, Knut E. A. Lundin, Chidozie Agu, Simiat Olanike Elias, Keolebogile Shirley Motaung, Bianca Brix, Gerhard Cvirn, Harald Sourij, Evelyn Stelzl, Harald H. Kessler, Adam Salon and Benedicta Nkeh-Chungag

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:719

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  3. Scientists across disciplines, policymakers, and journalists have voiced frustration at the unprecedented polarization and misinformation around coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several false dich...

    Authors: Kevin Escandón, Angela L. Rasmussen, Isaac I. Bogoch, Eleanor J. Murray, Karina Escandón, Saskia V. Popescu and Jason Kindrachuk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:710

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  4. The type of pneumonia that is caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread across the world in a pandemic. It is not clear if COVID-19 patients have any lower urinary tract signs or symptoms.

    Authors: Aida Javan Balegh Marand, Christian Bach, Dick Janssen, John Heesakkers, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Thomas Alexander Vögeli, Hanieh Salehi-Pourmehr, Hadi Mostafae, Sakineh Hajebrahimi and Mohammad Sajjad Rahnama’i

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:706

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. Predicting hospital length of stay (LoS) for patients with COVID-19 infection is essential to ensure that adequate bed capacity can be provided without unnecessarily restricting care for patients with other co...

    Authors: Bindu Vekaria, Christopher Overton, Arkadiusz Wiśniowski, Shazaad Ahmad, Andrea Aparicio-Castro, Jacob Curran-Sebastian, Jane Eddleston, Neil A Hanley, Thomas House, Jihye Kim, Wendy Olsen, Maria Pampaka, Lorenzo Pellis, Diego Perez Ruiz, John Schofield, Nick Shryane…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:700

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  6. SARS-CoV-2 has swept across the globe, causing millions of deaths worldwide. Though most survive, many experience symptoms of COVID-19 for months after acute infection. Successful prevention and treatment of a...

    Authors: Stephanie M. LaVergne, Sophia Stromberg, Bridget A. Baxter, Tracy L. Webb, Taru S. Dutt, Kailey Berry, Madison Tipton, Jared Haberman, Benjamin R. Massey, Kim McFann, Omar Alnachoukati, Linda Zier, Thomas Heacock, Gregory D. Ebel, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, Julie Dunn…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:677

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks have a significant impact on the health and wellbeing, and livelihoods of communities. EVD response interventions particularly affect the food value chain, and income securi...

    Authors: Doreen Birungi, Gabriel Tumwine, Charles Drago Kato, Tonny Ssekamatte, Michael Ocaido and Samuel Majalija

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:669

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a global health issue with severe implications on morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of HCV infection on all-cause, liver-related, and...

    Authors: Pierluca Piselli, Diego Serraino, Mario Fusco, Enrico Girardi, Angelo Pirozzi, Federica Toffolutti, Claudia Cimaglia and Martina Taborelli

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:667

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. This study was performed to investigate clinical features of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and identify risk factors for converting to severe cases in those who had mild to moderate diseases at the...

    Authors: Chao Cao, Li He, Jingping Ma, Meiping Chen, Yiting Li, Qingwen Jiang, Shiyu Wu, Lili Yu, Weina Huang, Guoqing Qian, Chuanbing Zhu, Jinguo Chu and Xiaomin Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:666

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. As SARS-CoV-2 testing expands, particularly to widespread asymptomatic testing, high sensitivity point-of-care PCR platforms may optimise potential benefits from pooling multiple patients’ samples.

    Authors: Alison Burdett, Christofer Toumazou, Rashmita Sahoo, Adam Mujan, Tsz-Kin Hon, Judith Bedzo-Nutakor, Nicola Casali, Maria Karvela, Mohammadreza Sohbati, Graham S. Cooke, Gary W. Davies and Luke S. P. Moore

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:665

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  11. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality rate, especially in patients with severe illness. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the potential predictors o...

    Authors: Changcheng Shi, Limin Wang, Jian Ye, Zhichun Gu, Shuying Wang, Junbo Xia, Yaping Xie, Qingyu Li, Renjie Xu and Nengming Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:663

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. The reproduction number is one of the most crucial parameters in determining disease dynamics, providing a summary measure of the transmission potential. However, estimating this value is particularly challeng...

    Authors: Yunjeong Lee, Dong Han Lee, Hee-Dae Kwon, Changsoo Kim and Jeehyun Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:658

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  13. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) is expanding worldwide. The characteristics of this infection in patients varies from country to country. To move forward, clinical data on infected patients are needed. Her...

    Authors: Ladan Goshayeshi, Mina Akbari Rad, Robert Bergquist, Abolghasem Allahyari, Kamila Hashemzadeh and Benyamin Hoseini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:656

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis is a cutaneous manifestation that had not been clearly associated with infection by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus, which is a retrovirus that in most cases does not develop cl...

    Authors: Elías Quintero-Muñoz, Daniel Martin Arsanios, María Fernanda Estupiñán Beltrán, Juan David Vera, Catalina Palacio Giraldo, Omar Velandia and Carlos Mauricio Calderon

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:652

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  15. A considerable amount of evidence demonstrates the potential of saliva in the diagnosis of COVID-19. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity of saliva versus swabs collected by healthcare workers (HCWs) and p...

    Authors: Mitnala Sasikala, Yelamanchili Sadhana, Ketavarapu Vijayasarathy, Anand Gupta, Sarala Kumari Daram, Naveen Chander Reddy Podduturi and Duvvur Nageshwar Reddy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:648

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. Males and females differ in their immunological responses to foreign pathogens. However, most of the current COVID-19 clinical practices and trials do not take the sex factor into consideration.

    Authors: Bin Huang, Yun Cai, Ning Li, Kening Li, Zhihua Wang, Lu Li, Lingxiang Wu, Mengyan Zhu, Jie Li, Ziyu Wang, Min Wu, Wanlin Li, Wei Wu, Lishen Zhang, Xinyi Xia, Shukui Wang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:647

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Although there are a growing number of studies on evaluating lymphocyte subset counts as prognostic factors for COVID-19 disease severity, the lymphocyte subsets’ analyses of both IgM and IgG responders and no...

    Authors: Mitra Rezaei, Shima Mahmoudi, Esmaeil Mortaz and Majid Marjani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:646

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. There is an urgent need to elucidate the epidemiology of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and characterize its potential impact. Investing in characterising the SARS-CoV2 will he...

    Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Syed, Ahmed Sameer Al Nuaimi, Hamda Abdulla A/Qotba, Gheyath K. Nasrallah, Asmaa A. Althani, Hadi M. Yassine, Abduljaleel Abdullatif Zainel, Hanan Khudadad, Tamara Marji, Shajitha Thekke Veettil, Hadeel T. Al-Jighefee, Salma Younes, Farah Shurrab, Duaa W. Al-Sadeq, Al Anoud Saleh AlFehaidi, Ameena Ibrahim Yfakhroo…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:645

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Infection by chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) can cause a wide spectrum of clinical features, many of which are undifferentiated. Cytokines, which broadly also include chemokines and growth factors,...

    Authors: Rama Dhenni, Benediktus Yohan, Bachti Alisjahbana, Anton Lucanus, Silvita Fitri Riswari, Dewi Megawati, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Dekrit Gampamole, Rahma F. Hayati, Kartika Sari, Ni Putu Diah Witari, Khin Saw Aye Myint and R. Tedjo Sasmono

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:639

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  20. COVID-19 continuously threated public health heavily. Present study aimed to investigate the lymphocyte subset alterations with disease severity, imaging manifestation, and delayed hospitalization in COVID-19 ...

    Authors: Daxian Wu, Xiaoping Wu, Jiansheng Huang, Qunfang Rao, Qi Zhang and Wenfeng Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:631

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. Convalescent plasma (CP) and hyperimmune plasma (HP) are passive immunotherapies consisting in the infusion of plasma from recovered people into infected patients. Following pre-existing evidence in many other...

    Authors: Maria Grazia Cusi, Edoardo Conticini, Claudia Gandolfo, Gabriele Anichini, Gianni Gori Savellini, Serafina Valente, Federico Franchi, Sabino Scolletta, Elena Percivalle and Bruno Frediani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:630

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  22. Seasonal influenza leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid self-tests could improve access to influenza testing in community settings. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a mobile app-g...

    Authors: Monica L. Zigman Suchsland, Ivan Rahmatullah, Barry Lutz, Victoria Lyon, Shichu Huang, Enos Kline, Chelsey Graham, Shawna Cooper, Philip Su, Sam Smedinghoff, Helen Y. Chu, Kara Sewalk, John S. Brownstein and Matthew J. Thompson

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:617

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the world, until now, the number of positive and death cases is still increasing. Therefore, it remains important to identify risk factors for death in cri...

    Authors: Jinghua Gao, Li Zhong, Ming Wu, Jingjing Ji, Zheying Liu, Conglin Wang, Qifeng Xie and Zhifeng Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:602

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has become a world health threaten. Its risk factors with death were still not known. White blood cells (WBC) count as a reflection of inflammation has played a vital role in ...

    Authors: Bin Zhu, Xiaokai Feng, Chunguo Jiang, Song Mi, Liya Yang, Zhigang Zhao, Yong Zhang and Liming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:574

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to favor a poorer outcome of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess if 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD) levels are associated with interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels ...

    Authors: Irene Campi, Luigi Gennari, Daniela Merlotti, Christian Mingiano, Alessandro Frosali, Luca Giovanelli, Camilla Torlasco, Martino F. Pengo, Francesca Heilbron, Davide Soranna, Antonella Zambon, Marta Di Stefano, Carmen Aresta, Marco Bonomi, Biagio Cangiano, Vittoria Favero…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:566

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. This study was performed with the intention of comparing the clinical, laboratory, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings between severe and non-severe patients as well as between different age groups com...

    Authors: Meisam Hoseinyazdi, Saeid Esmaeilian, Reza Jahankhah, Arash Teimouri, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Faranak Rafiee, Reza Jalli and Sedighe Hooshmandi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:560

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Recent conflict and war in Yemen lead to collapse of the health system, decrease of immunization coverage and spread of many outbreaks. On May 22, 2018, the surveillance officer in Shabwah governorate reported...

    Authors: Abdulkareem Ali Hussein Nassar, Mohammed Abdullah Al Amad, Mohammed Qasim and Fekri Dureab

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:551

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Due to the latent onset of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to identify patients with increased probabilities for disease progression early in order to implement timely medical strate...

    Authors: Xiaowei Gong, Shiwei Kang, Xianfeng Guo, Yan Li, Haixiang Gao and Yadong Yuan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:549

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged pandemic coronavirus (CoV) capable of causing severe respiratory illness. However, a significant number of infected people present as asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic. In this...

    Authors: Belinda M. Jackson-Thompson, Emilie Goguet, Eric D. Laing, Cara H. Olsen, Simon Pollett, K. Monique Hollis-Perry, Santina E. Maiolatesi, Luca Illinik, Kathleen F. Ramsey, Anatalio E. Reyes, Yolanda Alcorta, Mimi A. Wong, Julian Davies, Orlando Ortega, Edward Parmelee, Alyssa R. Lindrose…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:544

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  30. At present, no agents are known to be effective at preventing COVID-19. Based on current knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease, we suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection might be attenuated by directly main...

    Authors: Michael V. Dubina, Veronika V. Gomonova, Anastasia E. Taraskina, Natalia V. Vasilyeva and Sergey A. Sayganov

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:536

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Many popular disease transmission models have helped nations respond to the COVID-19 pandemic by informing decisions about pandemic planning, resource allocation, implementation of social distancing measures, ...

    Authors: Soumik Purkayastha, Rupam Bhattacharyya, Ritwik Bhaduri, Ritoban Kundu, Xuelin Gu, Maxwell Salvatore, Debashree Ray, Swapnil Mishra and Bhramar Mukherjee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:533

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  32. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is reported to have thrombogenic characteristics that activate factor X in vitro and stimulate the production of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Thrombosis associated with CM...

    Authors: Kaisei Kamatani, Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Ryu Sugimoto, Ayako Kumabe, Akihito Kitao and Hozuka Akita

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:530

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  33. Reports on the effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have been conflicting. We performed this meta-analysis to find con...

    Authors: Yihienew M. Bezabih, Alemayehu Bezabih, Endalkachew Alamneh, Gregory M. Peterson and Woldesellassie Bezabhe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:527

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Navigating the rapidly growing body of scientific literature on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is challenging, and ongoing critical appraisal of this output is essential. We aimed to summarize and critically appraise...

    Authors: Israel Júnior Borges do Nascimento, Dónal P. O’Mathúna, Thilo Caspar von Groote, Hebatullah Mohamed Abdulazeem, Ishanka Weerasekara, Ana Marusic, Livia Puljak, Vinicius Tassoni Civile, Irena Zakarija-Grkovic, Tina Poklepovic Pericic, Alvaro Nagib Atallah, Santino Filoso, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi and Milena Soriano Marcolino

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:525

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. With pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have recently attached worldwide attention as essential pathogens in respiratory infection. HCoV-229E has been described as a r...

    Authors: Wen Sun, Ji-Ping Liao, Kun-Yao Yu, Jian-Xing Qiu, Chen-Li Que, Guang-Fa Wang and Jing Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:524

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. SARS-CoV-2 can affect the human brain and other neurological structures. An increasing number of publications report neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19. However, no studies have comprehensiv...

    Authors: Juan I. Guerrero, Luis A. Barragán, Juan D. Martínez, Juan P. Montoya, Alejandra Peña, Fidel E. Sobrino, Zulma Tovar-Spinoza and Kemel A. Ghotme

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:515

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and corticosteroids have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for this disease. However, there is limited l...

    Authors: Jong Hoon Hyun, Moo Hyun Kim, Yujin Sohn, Yunsuk Cho, Yae Jee Baek, Jung Ho Kim, Jin Young Ahn, Jun Yong Choi, Joon Sup Yeom, Mi Young Ahn, Eun Jin Kim, Ji-Hyeon Baek, Young Keun Kim, Heun Choi and Su Jin Jeong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:506

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, several countries adopted measures of social distancing to a different degree. For many countries, after successfully curbing the initial wave, lockdown measures w...

    Authors: Pietro Coletti, Pieter Libin, Oana Petrof, Lander Willem, Steven Abrams, Sereina A. Herzog, Christel Faes, Elise Kuylen, James Wambua, Philippe Beutels and Niel Hens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:503

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. COVID-19 is a novel disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. During the global vaccination rollout, it is vital to thoroughly understand the modes of transmission of the virus in order to prevent further spread of varian...

    Authors: Lucas Zhou, Samuel K. Ayeh, Vignesh Chidambaram and Petros C. Karakousis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:496

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  40. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been largely controlled in China, to the point where case fatality rate (CFR) data can be comprehensively evaluated.

    Authors: Qing-Bin Lu, Hai-Yang Zhang, Tian-Le Che, Han Zhao, Xi Chen, Rui Li, Wan-Li Jiang, Hao-Long Zeng, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Hui Long, Qiang Wang, Ming-Qing Wu, Michael P. Ward, Yue Chen, Zhi-Jie Zhang, Yang Yang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:481

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. The COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan started in December 2019 and was under control by the end of March 2020 with a total of 50,006 confirmed cases by the implementation of a series of nonpharmaceutical intervention...

    Authors: Xi Huo, Jing Chen and Shigui Ruan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:476

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. In 2017, New Caledonia experienced an outbreak of severe dengue causing high hospital burden (4379 cases, 416 hospital admissions, 15 deaths). We decided to build a local operational model predictive of dengue...

    Authors: Ingrid Marois, Carole Forfait, Catherine Inizan, Elise Klement-Frutos, Anabelle Valiame, Daina Aubert, Ann-Claire Gourinat, Sylvie Laumond, Emilie Barsac, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Cécile Cazorla, Audrey Merlet, Arnaud Tarantola, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol and Elodie Descloux

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:470

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic since March 11th, 2020. Despite emerging reports and literature covering a broad spectrum of COVID-19 clinical manifestations, facets of ...

    Authors: Muzakkir Amir, Andi Renata and Levina Tri Ratana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:465

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. COVID-19 is a public health emergency with a high mortality rate and it reduces the patient’s Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) significantly. This effect is measured in the current study.

    Authors: Cyrus Alinia, Safura Yaghmaei, Farman Zahir Abdullah, Asad Ahmadi, Nasrin Samadi, Sima Pourteimour, Hossein Safari, Hassan Mahmoodi, Ghobad Moradi and Bakhtiar Piroozi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:459

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:538

Annual Journal Metrics

COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.