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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged public health agencies globally. In order to effectively target government responses, it is critical to identify the individuals most...

    Authors: M. Flook, C. Jackson, E. Vasileiou, C. R. Simpson, M. D. Muckian, U. Agrawal, C. McCowan, Y. Jia, J. L. K. Murray, L. D. Ritchie, C. Robertson, S. J. Stock, X. Wang, M. E. J. Woolhouse, A. Sheikh and H. R. Stagg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that rapidly spreads worldwide and co-infection of COVID-19 and influenza may occur in some cases. We aimed to describe clinical features a...

    Authors: Xunliang Tong, Xiaomao Xu, Guoyue Lv, He Wang, Anqi Cheng, Dingyi Wang, Guohui Fan, Yue Zhang and Yanming Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:341

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Unusually high snowfall in western Washington State in February 2019 led to widespread school and workplace closures. We assessed the impact of social distancing caused by this extreme weather event on the tra...

    Authors: Michael L. Jackson, Gregory R. Hart, Denise J. McCulloch, Amanda Adler, Elisabeth Brandstetter, Kairsten Fay, Peter Han, Kirsten Lacombe, Jover Lee, Thomas R. Sibley, Deborah A. Nickerson, Mark J. Rieder, Lea Starita, Janet A. Englund, Trevor Bedford, Helen Chu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:335

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The clinical and imaging features of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections that progressed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been explored in numerous ...

    Authors: Yan Rong, Fei Wang, Jinfei Tian, Xinhua Liang, Jing Wang, Xiaoli Li, Dandan Zhang, Jing Liu, Huadong Zeng, Yang Zhou and Yi Shi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:333

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe, often fatal illness in humans and nonhuman primates caused by the Ebola virus. The recently approved rVSV-EBOV vaccine is not available in many high-risk countries hence ...

    Authors: Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy, Alphonse Um Boock and Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla Akoachere

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:324

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) is a leading cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Respiratory microbes that were simultaneously detected in the respiratory tracts of hospitaliz...

    Authors: Phuong Thai Truong, Shinji Saito, Ikuyo Takayama, Hiroyuki Furuya, Binh Gia Nguyen, Thanh Van Do, Phuong Thu Phan, Cuong Duy Do, Co Xuan Dao, Thach The Pham, Tuan Quoc Dang, Chau Quy Ngo, Ngan Thi Le, Vuong Minh Bui, Dung Trung Le, Van Thi Tuong Vu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Accurate diagnosis in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential to guide treatment and limit spread of the virus. The combined nasal and throat swab is used widely, but its diagn...

    Authors: Kuan Ken Lee, Dimitrios Doudesis, Daniella A. Ross, Anda Bularga, Claire L. MacKintosh, Oliver Koch, Ingolfur Johannessen, Kate Templeton, Sara Jenks, Andrew R. Chapman, Anoop S. V. Shah, Atul Anand, Meghan R. Perry and Nicholas L. Mills

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:318

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Dengue infection is caused by an arbovirus with a wide range of presentations, varying from asymptomatic disease to unspecific febrile illness and haemorrhagic syndrome with shock, which can evolve to death. I...

    Authors: Marielton dos Passos Cunha, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto, Shahab Zaki Pour, Ludhmila Abrahão Hajjar, Fernando Pereira Frassetto, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Paulo Hilario do Nascimento Saldiva and Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:311

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Covid-19 is a disease with high morbidity and mortality among elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF). During an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the LTCF an effective screening tool is essent...

    Authors: P. Sabaka, A. Koščálová, I. Straka, J. Hodosy, R. Lipták, B. Kmotorková, M. Kachlíková and A. Kušnírová

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the leading causes of hospitalization in children. Understanding the local dominant viral etiologies is important to inform infection control practices and clinica...

    Authors: Cheng Lei, Lisong Yang, Cheong Tat Lou, Fan Yang, Kin Ian SiTou, Hao Hu, King Io, Kun Tat Cheok, Baoquan Pan and Carolina Oi Lam Ung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:306

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Coronavirus disease once thought to be a respiratory infection is now recognised as a multi-system disease affecting the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, immune, and hematopoietic s...

    Authors: Bodunrin Osikomaiya, Olufemi Erinoso, Kikelomo Ololade Wright, Aina Olufemi Odusola, Babafemi Thomas, Oluwatosin Adeyemi, Abimbola Bowale, Olusola Adejumo, Ayodeji Falana, Ismail Abdus-salam, Olusegun Ogboye, Akin Osibogun and Akin Abayomi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading globally and causes most frequently fever and respiratory symptoms, i.e. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, distinct neurological ...

    Authors: Jana Werner, Ina Reichen, Michael Huber, Irene A. Abela, Michael Weller and Ilijas Jelcic

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:298

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Information on the etiology and age-specific burden of respiratory viral infections among school-aged children remains limited. Though school aged children are often recognized as driving the transmission of i...

    Authors: Jonathan M. Read, Shanta Zimmer, Charles Vukotich Jr, Mary Lou Schweizer, David Galloway, Carrie Lingle, Gaby Yearwood, Patti Calderone, Eva Noble, Talia Quadelacy, Kyra Grantz, Charles Rinaldo, Hongjiang Gao, Jeanette Rainey, Amra Uzicanin and Derek A. T. Cummings

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:291

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Dengue fever prevalence is rising globally and it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Fluid extravasation during the critical phase of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) leads to shock, multi-organ failur...

    Authors: PMW Madanayake, AEU Jayawardena, S L Wijekoon, N Perera and JKP Wanigasuriya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:286

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In 2010-2011, we conducted a social contact survey in Flanders, Belgium, aimed at improving and extending the design of the first social contact survey conducted in Belgium in 2006. This second social contact ...

    Authors: Thang Van Hoang, Pietro Coletti, Yimer Wasihun Kifle, Kim Van Kerckhove, Sarah Vercruysse, Lander Willem, Philippe Beutels and Niel Hens

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:274

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In the future, co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses A/B is likely. From a clinical point of view, differentiation of the two disease entities is ...

    Authors: Pablo Sieber, Domenica Flury, Sabine Güsewell, Werner C. Albrich, Katia Boggian, Céline Gardiol, Matthias Schlegel, Robert Sieber, Pietro Vernazza and Philipp Kohler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:271

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The Pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has critically impacted the spread of infection within nursing facilities. We evaluated t...

    Authors: Yong Chong, Naoki Tani, Hideyuki Ikematsu, Nobuto Terazawa, Hitoshi Nakashima, Nobuyuki Shimono, Koichi Akashi and Yosuke Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:263

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors have been postulated to influence susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study investigated whether there is an associati...

    Authors: Shamil Haroon, Anuradhaa Subramanian, Jennifer Cooper, Astha Anand, Krishna Gokhale, Nathan Byne, Samir Dhalla, Dionisio Acosta-Mena, Thomas Taverner, Kelvin Okoth, Jingya Wang, Joht Singh Chandan, Christopher Sainsbury, Dawit Tefra Zemedikun, G. Neil Thomas, Dhruv Parekh…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:262

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was emergency turned into global public health after the first patients were detected in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease rapidly expanded and led to an...

    Authors: Farnaz Karimi, Amir Abbas Vaezi, Mostafa Qorbani, Fatemeh Moghadasi, Saeed Hassani Gelsfid, Arman Maghoul, Neda Mahmoodi, Zahra Eskandari, Hossein Gholami, Zakiye Mokhames and Mahshid Saleh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:256

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Chinese population has a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the impact of which on pregnancy outcome remains controversial. A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed i...

    Authors: Qian Sun, Terence T. Lao, Mingyu Du, Min Xie, Yonghu Sun, Bing Bai, Junnan Ma, Tianying Zhu, Shengnan Yu and Runmei Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:253

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Infants with bronchiolitis have an increased risk of developing recurrent wheezing and asthma. However, the risk factors for the development of recurrent wheezing after bronchiolitis remains controversial. Our...

    Authors: Sainan Chen, Wenjing Gu, Min Wu, Chuangli Hao, Canhong Zhu, Xuejun Shao and Yuqing Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:250

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Presymptomatic COVID-19 patients have been identified as a major stumbling block in efforts to break the chain of transmission. Studies on temporal dynamics of its shedding suggests it peaks 1–2 days prior to ...

    Authors: Juen Kiem Tan, Dalleen Leong, Hemalatha Munusamy, Nor Hazwani Zenol Ariffin, Najma Kori, Rozita Hod and Petrick Periyasamy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:249

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Human noroviruses are one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses and represent a serious public health concern. Rapid and sensitive assays for human norovirus detection are undoubtedly necessary for clinica...

    Authors: Zhiwei Qin, Liang Xue, Weicheng Cai, Junshan Gao, Yueting Jiang, Jiale Yang, Yanhui Liang, Linping Wang, Jumei Zhang, Yongdan Hu and Qingping Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:248

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Based on differences in populations and prevention and control measures, the spread of new coronary pneumonia in different countries and regions also differs. This study aimed to calculate the transmissibility...

    Authors: Qinglong Zhao, Yao Wang, Meng Yang, Meina Li, Zeyu Zhao, Xinrong Lu, Bo Shen, Bo Luan, Yifei Zhao, Bonan Cao, Laishun Yao, Benhua Zhao, Yanhua Su and Tianmu Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:245

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Sniffer dogs are able to detect certain chemical particles and are suggest to be capable of helping diagnose some medical conditions and complications, such as colorectal cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, and ...

    Authors: Esmaeil Eskandari, Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh, Hassan Roudgari, Ramin Hamidi Farahani, Amir Nezami-Asl, Reza Laripour, Helen Aliyazdi, Arasb Dabbagh Moghaddam, Ramin Zibaseresht, Hossein Akbarialiabad, Mojtaba Yousefi Zoshk, Hamidreza Shiri and Mahdi Shiri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:243

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Previous studies have indicated that the risk of infectious disease spread is greatest in locations where a population has massive and convenient access to the epicenter of an outbreak. However, the spatiotemp...

    Authors: Li Wang, Chengdong Xu, Jinfeng Wang, Jiajun Qiao, Mingtao Yan and Qiankun Zhu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:242

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Cytokine storm triggered by Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality. With high Interleukin -6 (IL-6) levels reported in COVID-19 related deaths in China, IL-6 is considered...

    Authors: Yojana Gokhale, Rakshita Mehta, Uday Kulkarni, Nitin Karnik, Sushant Gokhale, Uma Sundar, Swati Chavan, Akshay Kor, Sonal Thakur, Trupti Trivedi, Naveen Kumar, Sujata Baveja, Aniket Wadal, Shaonak Kolte, Aukshan Deolankar, Sangeeta Pednekar…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infections is important, and laboratory tests help diagnose CNS infections. Even when the patient has symptoms, laboratory tests often do not reveal...

    Authors: Young Jin Kim, Hương Giang Lê, Byoung-Kuk Na, Bo Gyu Kim, Youn-Kwan Jung, Mutbyul Kim, Heeyoung Kang and Min-Chul Cho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Although there are reports of otolaryngological symptoms and manifestations of CoronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), there have been no documented cases of sudden neck swelling with rash in patients with Severe A...

    Authors: Caterina Giannitto, Cristiana Bonifacio, Susanna Esposito, Angela Ammirabile, Giuseppe Mercante, Armando De Virgilio, Giuseppe Spriano, Enrico Heffler, Ludovica Lofino, Letterio Salvatore Politi and Luca Balzarini

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:232

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  30. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the common diseases in children and the routine detection methods frequently fail to identify the infectious pathogens especially for viruses. The Filmarray respiratory ...

    Authors: Fen Pan, Bingjie Wang, Hong Zhang, Yingying Shi and Qi Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:230

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The massive outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Daegu city and Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea (ROK), caused the exponential increase in new cases exceeding 5000 within 6 weeks. Th...

    Authors: Jong Hun Kim, Won Suk Choi, Joon Young Song, Young Kyung Yoon, Min Ja Kim and Jang Wook Sohn

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:229

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Family with sequence similarity 26, member F (FAM26F) is an important innate immunity modulator playing a significant role in diverse immune responses, however, the association of FAM26F expression with HBV in...

    Authors: Kehkshan Jabeen, Uzma Malik, Sajid Mansoor, Shaheen Shahzad, Saadia Zahid and Aneela Javed

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:228

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Loss of smell and/or taste are cardinal symptoms of COVID-19. ‘Long-COVID’, persistence of symptoms, affects around one fifth of people. However, data regarding the clinical resolution of loss of smell and/or ...

    Authors: Janine Makaronidis, Chloe Firman, Cormac G. Magee, Jessica Mok, Nyaladzi Balogun, Matt Lechner, Alisia Carnemolla and Rachel L. Batterham

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:221

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Describe the indications for surgical interventions in asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2. We are unaware of previous reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 and acute appendicitis.

    Authors: Charlsea Prichard, Matthew Canning, Kindra McWilliam-Ross, John Birbari, William Parker, Lori Wasson and John W. Hollingsworth

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:217

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute infectious disease caused by human enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus, or echovirus, which is particularly common in preschool children. Severe HFMD is prone...

    Authors: Fengyun Wang, Xinhua Qiang, Suhua Jiang, Jingsong Shao, Bin Fang and Lixin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research article

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  36. A large-scale global outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan, from China, occurred in January 2020. To examine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in infected patients out of Wuhan, fro...

    Authors: Hua Zhang, Feng Du, Xiao-jun Cao, Xia-long Feng, He-ping Zhang, Zheng-xia Wu, Bao-Feng Wang, Hong-juan Zhang, Rui Liu, Jian-jun Yang, Bo Ning, Kai Chen and Zhen-peng Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:207

    Content type: Research article

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  37. There is limited information on the difference in epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Sichuan (the per...

    Authors: Gang Wang, Feng Ming Luo, Dan Liu, Jia Sheng Liu, Ye Wang, Hong Chen, Pan Wen Tian, Tao Fan, Li Tang, He Yu, Lan Wang, Mei Feng, Zhong Ni, Bo Wang, Zhi Fang Song, Xiao Ling Wu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic that has raised worldwide concern. This study aims to investigate the correlation between the extent of lung infection and relevant clinical lab...

    Authors: Xingrui Wang, Qinglin Che, Xiaoxiao Ji, Xinyi Meng, Lang Zhang, Rongrong Jia, Hairong Lyu, Weixian Bai, Lingjie Tan and Yanjun Gao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) was first described in Tanzania in 1952. Several epidemics including East Africa have occurred, but there are no descriptions of longitudinal surveillance of endemic disease. Here, we...

    Authors: Doris K. Nyamwaya, Mark Otiende, Donwilliams O. Omuoyo, George Githinji, Henry K. Karanja, John N. Gitonga, Zaydah R. de Laurent, James R. Otieno, Rosemary Sang, Everlyn Kamau, Stanley Cheruiyot, Edward Otieno, Charles N. Agoti, Philip Bejon, Samuel M. Thumbi and George M. Warimwe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:186

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Recent studies showed that plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA seems to be associated with worse COVID-19 outcome. However, whether specific population can be at higher risk of viremia are to date unexplored.

    Authors: Luna Colagrossi, Maria Antonello, Silvia Renica, Marco Merli, Elisa Matarazzo, Giovanna Travi, Marta Vecchi, Jacopo Colombo, Antonio Muscatello, Giacomo Grasselli, Silvia Nerini Molteni, Vittorio Scaravilli, Emanuele Cattaneo, Diana Fanti, Chiara Vismara, Alessandra Bandera…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Perinatally chikungunya infected neonates have been reported to have high rates of post-infection neurologic sequelae, mainly cognitive problems. In older children and adults chikungunya does not appear to hav...

    Authors: Roelof van Ewijk, Minke H. W. Huibers, Meindert E. Manshande, Ginette M. Ecury-Goossen, Ashley J. Duits, Job C. Calis and Aleid G. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Epidemiological and clinical features of patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were well delineated. However, no researches described the patients complicated with pleural effusion (PE). In the pr...

    Authors: Na Zhan, Yingyun Guo, Shan Tian, Binglu Huang, Xiaoli Tian, Jinjing Zou, Qiutang Xiong, Dongling Tang, Liang Zhang and Weiguo Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

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  43. While hypertension is the most common comorbid condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, there is a lack of studies investigating risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertens...

    Authors: Hee-Sung Kim, Minseok Kang and Gilwon Kang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:175

    Content type: Research article

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  44. There are limited number of studies with controversial findings regarding the association between anemia at admission and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Therefore, in this research, we aimed to ...

    Authors: Masood Faghih Dinevari, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Elham Sadeghi Majd, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi and Zeinab Nikniaz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Characteristics of COVID-19 patients have mainly been reported within confirmed COVID-19 cohorts. By analyzing patients with respiratory infections in the emergency department during the first pandemic wave, w...

    Authors: Nicola Fink, Johannes Rueckel, Sophia Kaestle, Vincent Schwarze, Eva Gresser, Boj Hoppe, Jan Rudolph, Sophia Goller, Wolfgang G. Kunz, Jens Ricke and Bastian O. Sabel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research article

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  46. An unexpected dengue outbreak occurred in Hunan Province in 2018. This was the first dengue outbreak in this area of inland China, and 172 cases were reported.

    Authors: Jiaoqiong Guan, Zhanlong He, Meng Qin, Xialin Deng, Jun Chen, Suqin Duan, Xiaojun Gao, Yue Pan, Junying Chen, Yaping Yang, Shijun Feng and Qiangming Sun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:166

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Although vaccination is one of the main countermeasures against influenza epidemic, it is highly essential to make informed prevention decisions to guarantee that limited vaccination resources are allocated to...

    Authors: Jianqing Qiu, Huimin Wang, Lin Hu, Changhong Yang and Tao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research article

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