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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. A new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has escalated to a pandemic since its first outbreak in Wuhan, China. A small proportion of patients may have difficulty in generating IgM or IgG antibodies against SA...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Chong Chen, Qilin Li, Pengcheng Cai, Zheng Wang and Lin Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:698

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Dengue fever usually presents as a self-limiting acute febrile illness with worsening thrombocytopenia, with a small minority of patients developing hemorrhagic or life-threatening complications. Organ specifi...

    Authors: Jun Yang Ho, Yee Kent Liew, Jiashen Loh and Pothiawala Sohil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:696

    Content type: Case report

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  3. With the widespread outbreak of novel coronavirus diseases 2019(COVID-19), more and more death cases were reported, however, limited data are available for the patients who died. We aimed to explore the clinic...

    Authors: Tao Yao, Yan Gao, Qin Cui, Bo Peng, Yan Chen, Jiansheng Li, Chao Huang, Chunping He, Jie Pu, Jiajun Wei, Yanqiang Zhan, Jie Yan, Jinghua Tian, Zhaohui Zhang and Zhichao Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:695

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the peak season of common respiratory viral infections. However, the ...

    Authors: Yanjun Si, Zhenzhen Zhao, Rong Chen, Huiyu Zhong, Tangyuheng Liu, Minjin Wang, Xingbo Song, Weimin Li and Binwu Ying

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:688

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 12,322,000 people and killed over 556,000 people worldwide. However, Differential diagnosis remains difficult for suspected c...

    Authors: Qiong Chi, Xinjian Dai, Xiangao Jiang, Lefei Zhu, Junyan Du, Yuxi Chen, Jiyang Zheng and Jianping Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:679

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The 2014/15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa resulted in 11,000 deaths and massive strain on local health systems, and the ongoing outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo has afflicted more than 3000 people. Acc...

    Authors: Zelda Moran, William Rodriguez, Doré Ahmadou, Barré Soropogui, N’ Faly Magassouba, Cassandra Kelly-Cirino and Yanis Ben Amor

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:670

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was firstly reported in Wuhan, China, with cases now confirmed in more than 100 countries. However, COVID-19 pneumonia with spontaneous pneumothorax is unk...

    Authors: Xiaoxing Chen, Guqin Zhang, Yueting Tang, Zhiyong Peng and Huaqin Pan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:662

    Content type: Case report

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  8. More than 80,000 dengue cases including 215 deaths were reported nationally in less than 7 months between 2016 and 2017, a fourfold increase in the number of reported cases compared to the average number over ...

    Authors: Ying Zhang, Jefferson Riera, Kayla Ostrow, Sauleh Siddiqui, Harendra de Silva, Sahotra Sarkar, Lakkumar Fernando and Lauren Gardner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:649

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The family cluster is one of most important modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission throughout China, and more details are needed about how family clusters cause the ...

    Authors: Yiling Zhang, Cheng Zhang, Ying Hu, Hongmei Yao, Xianchun Zeng, Changrong Hu, Li Zhao, Xiangyan Zhang and Xianwei Ye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:647

    Content type: Case report

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  10. To explore the clinical features and CT findings of clinically cured coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with viral RNA positive anal swab results after discharge.

    Authors: Hui Zhou, Liping Zhu, Yueshuang Leng, Dongcui Wang, Harrison X. Bai, Zeng Xiong, Linbo Shi and Weihua Liao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:644

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Evidence suggested that vaginal microbiome played a functional role in the progression of cervical lesions in female infected by HPV. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of common vaginal infection on...

    Authors: Mei Yang, Lin Li, Chunfan Jiang, Xiaomin Qin, Min Zhou, Xiaogang Mao and Hui Xing

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:642

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 14,000,000 people infected and nearly 600,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results ...

    Authors: Yewei Xie, Zaisheng Wang, Huipeng Liao, Gifty Marley, Dan Wu and Weiming Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:640

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Dengue fever is an arthropod vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Ethiopia has a favorable ecology for arthropods and report high burden of acute febrile illnesses. However,...

    Authors: Daniel Eshetu, Techalew Shimelis, Eshetu Nigussie, Girma Shumie, Wakwoya Chali, Biruck Yeshitela, Abraham Assefa and Endalamaw Gadisa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:639

    Content type: Research article

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  14. An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Recently, several articles have mentioned that the early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by COVID-19 signific...

    Authors: Jingen Xia, Yingying Feng, Min Li, Xin Yu, Yi Zhang, Jun Duan and Qingyuan Zhan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:637

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was first reported in mainland China in 2013, and alarming in 2016–17 due to the surge across a wide geographic area. Our study aimed to identify and explore the spatial and temp...

    Authors: Xuzheng Shan, Yongqin Wang, Ruihong Song, Wen Wei, Hongxiu Liao, Huang Huang, Chunqiong Xu, Lvlin Chen and Shiyun Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:630

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In this study, the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer and vaginal microbiome was evaluated in Chinese cohorts.

    Authors: Yulian Chen, Xingdi Qiu, Wenjing Wang, Dong Li, Anyue Wu, Zubei Hong, Wen Di and Lihua Qiu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:629

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Guidelines emphasize prompt antiviral treatment in severe influenza patients. Although nearly a 50% of severe influenza present with pneumonia, the effect of early (≤ 2 days after illness onset) neuraminidase ...

    Authors: Liang Chen, Xiudi Han, Yan Li Li, Chunxiao Zhang and Xiqian Xing

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:628

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The epidemiological pattern of hepatitis A infection has shown dynamic changes in many parts of the world due to improved socio-economic conditions and the accumulation of seronegative subjects, which leads to...

    Authors: Kaouther Ayouni, Bechir Naffeti, Walid Ben Aribi, Jihène Bettaieb, Walid Hammami, Afif Ben Salah, Hamadi Ammar, Slimane Ben Miled and Henda Triki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:627

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are a severe health concern worldwide. HBV is a DNA virus with a rapid rate of mutation. Based on heterogeneity of the nucleotide sequence, the HBV strains are divided into n...

    Authors: Yi Yi Kyaw, Aye Aye Lwin, Khin Saw Aye, Hlaing Myat Thu, Moh Moh Htun, Hnin Ohmar Soe, Kay Thi Aye, Kyaw Zin Thant, Hyeon Jeong Hwang and JaeHun Cheong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:552

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Millions of lives around the world are being saved annually through blood transfusion. However, blood transfusion is among the essential vehicles for transmitting infections. The overall prevalence of Transfus...

    Authors: Mohamed Aabdien, Nagah Selim, Sayed Himatt, Saloua Hmissi, Zeyd Merenkov, Noora AlKubaisi, Manar E. Abdel-Rahman, Abdelatif Abdelmola, Shadi Khelfa, Elmoubasher Farag, Hamad E. Al-Romaihi, Mohamed Al-Thani, Moutaz Derbala and Saad Al-Kaabi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:617

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The poliovirus has been targeted for eradication since 1988. Kenya reported its last case of indigenous Wild Poliovirus (WPV) in 1984 but suffered from an outbreak of circulating Vaccine-derived Poliovirus typ...

    Authors: Brook Tesfaye, Alieu Sowe, Ngina Kisangau, John Ogange, Stephen Ntoburi, Irene Nekar, Charles Muitherero, Yaya Camara, Carolyne Gathenji, Daniel Langat, Kibet Sergon, Hilary Limo, Rosemary Nzunza, Shem Kiptoon, David Kareko and Iheoma Onuekwusi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:611

    Content type: Research article

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  22. During an evolving outbreak or pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) including physical distancing, isolation, and mask use may flatten the peak in communities. However, these strategies rely on co...

    Authors: Holly Seale, Clare E. F. Dyer, Ikram Abdi, Kazi M. Rahman, Yanni Sun, Mohammed O. Qureshi, Alexander Dowell-Day, Jonathon Sward and M. Saiful Islam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:607

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Infections due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Influenza virus (FLU) are leading causes of hospitalization in young children. Yet, there is little data on factors associated with antibiotic use in the...

    Authors: Cihan Papan, Meike Willersinn, Christel Weiß, Michael Karremann, Horst Schroten and Tobias Tenenbaum

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:606

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Herpetic esophagitis (EH) usually affects those who are immunocompromised and is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. In these cases, EH may occasionally present as an acute and self-limited illness. Such cas...

    Authors: Alba M. Diezma-Martín, Esther Gigante-Miravalles, Juan Diego Castro Limo, Carlos Andrés Quimbayo Arcila and Juan José Puche Paniagua

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:605

    Content type: Case report

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  25. BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is a relatively common cause of renal dysfunction in the first six months after renal transplantation. It arises from reactivation of the latent and usually harmless BK ...

    Authors: Thomas Crowhurst, James Nolan, Randall Faull, Mark Holmes and Chien-Li Holmes-Liew

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:600

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Group A Rotavirus (RVA), despite being an important pathogen in hospitalized children, is less studied in pediatric outpatients, and even rarely investigated in adults. This study aims to understand the geneti...

    Authors: Xiaozhou Kuang, Xiaohuan Gong, Xi Zhang, Hao Pan and Zheng Teng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:596

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Antiviral therapy is recommended for patients with immune-active chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to decrease the risk of liver-related complications. However, the outcomes of the pegylated IFN-α (PEG-IFN-α) therapy ...

    Authors: Ruyu Liu, Yanhui Chen, Jiang Guo, Minghui Li, Yao Lu, Lu Zhang, Ge Shen, Shuling Wu, Min Chang, Leiping Hu, Hongxiao Hao, Henghui Zhang and Yao Xie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:590

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly used to detect viral pathogens because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, conventional PCR methods cannot determine virus infectivity. Virus infec...

    Authors: Yuki Nakaya, Takashi Fukuda, Hiroki Ashiba, Masato Yasuura and Makoto Fujimaki

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:585

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major health event that endangers people health throughout China and the world. Understanding the factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity cou...

    Authors: Songqiao Liu, Huanyuan Luo, Yuancheng Wang, Luis E. Cuevas, Duolao Wang, Shenghong Ju and Yi Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:584

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) remains a major safety concern for blood supplies. Despite many HTLV positive cases being reported in southeastern China, the detection of HTLV has not been prioritized i...

    Authors: Junpeng Zhao, Feixue Zhao, Wei Han, Xiaoxuan Xu, Lilin Wang, Ran Li, Tong Li, Linfeng Wu, Dandan Du, Xuezhen Zeng, Xiujuan Cui, Yunlong Chen, Jinfeng Zeng and Lunan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:581

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Dengue virus (DENV) causes the hospitalisation of an estimated 500,000 people every year. Outbreaks can severely stress healthcare systems, especially in rural settings. It is difficult to discriminate patient...

    Authors: Wesley de Jong, Tri Pudy Asmarawati, Inge Verbeek, Musofa Rusli, Usman Hadi, Eric van Gorp and Marco Goeijenbier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:580

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with the high case-fatality rate, and lack of vaccines. We aimed to systematically analysed the epidemiological characterist...

    Authors: Zhiquan He, Bohao Wang, Yi Li, Yanhua Du, Hongxia Ma, Xingle Li, Wanshen Guo, Bianli Xu and Xueyong Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:575

    Content type: Research article

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  33. To assess the dynamic changes in clinical and CT characteristics of COVID-19 patients with different epidemiology histories.

    Authors: Ruili Li, Guangxue Liu, Xiaojie Huang, Cuiyu Jia, Zhenying Xia, Wenyan Song, Xueqin Li, Xing Wang and Hongjun Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:567

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The recent COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread throughout the world. In this study, we systematically reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19.

    Authors: Yi-jie Gao, Lei Ye, Jia-shuo Zhang, Yang-xue Yin, Min Liu, Hong-biao Yu and Rong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:564

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The novel coronavirus, named as 2019-nCoV or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has recently appeared in China and has spread worldwide, presenting a health threat to the global community. Therefore, it is i...

    Authors: Sa’ed H. Zyoud and Samah W. Al-Jabi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:561

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N8) viruses have caused several worldwide outbreaks in birds and are of potential risk to humans. Thus, a specific, rapid and sensitive method for detection is urgently needed.

    Authors: Fan Yang, Lihua Xu, Fumin Liu, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu and Haibo Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:550

    Content type: Research article

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  37. We aimed to report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Zengdu District, Hubei Province, China.

    Authors: Yiping Wei, Weibiao Zeng, Xiangyun Huang, Junyu Li, Xingting Qiu, Huadong Li, Dinghua Liu, Zhaofeng He, Wenzhong Yao, Ping Huang, Chao Li, Min Zhu, Chunlan Zhong, Xingen Zhu and Jiansheng Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:549

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The risk of life-threatening complications, such as visceral disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, is greater in immunosuppressed individuals, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.

    Authors: Veronica Vassia, Alessandro Croce, Paolo Ravanini, Monica Leutner, Chiara Saglietti, Stefano Fangazio, Marco Quaglia and Carlo Smirne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:538

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Twelve students experienced symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) at a training base in Beijing from August 26 to August 30, 2015. We investigated the cause of this ARI outbreak.

    Authors: Guilan Lu, Xiaomin Peng, Renqing Li, Yimeng Liu, Zhanguo Wu, Xifeng Wang, Daitao Zhang, Jiachen Zhao, Ying Sun, Li Zhang, Peng Yang and Quanyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:537

    Content type: Research article

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  40. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread, early, ideally real-time, identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals is pivotal in interrupting infection chains. Volatile organic compounds produced during...

    Authors: Paula Jendrny, Claudia Schulz, Friederike Twele, Sebastian Meller, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Albertus Dominicus Marcellinus Erasmus Osterhaus, Janek Ebbers, Veronika Pilchová, Isabell Pink, Tobias Welte, Michael Peter Manns, Anahita Fathi, Christiane Ernst, Marylyn Martina Addo, Esther Schalke and Holger Andreas Volk

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:536

    Content type: Research article

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  41. With the spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, understanding the basic epidemiological parameter values of COVID-19 from real-world data in mega-cities is essential for disease prevention and control.

    Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Lijuan Chen, Lei Jia, Xinyu Li, Peng Yang, Quanyi Wang and C. Raina Macintyre

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:526

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and has quickly spread across the world. The mortal...

    Authors: Dan Wang, Ruifang Li, Juan Wang, Qunqun Jiang, Chang Gao, Juan Yang, Lintong Ge and Qing Hu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:519

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. Real-time RT-PCR ...

    Authors: Li-Da Chen, Hao Li, Yu-Ming Ye, Zhi Wu, Ya-Ping Huang, Wei-Liang Zhang and Li Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:517

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Kenya introduced the monovalent G1P [8] Rotarix® vaccine into the infant immunization schedule in July 2014. We examined trends in rotavirus group A (RVA) genotype distribution pre- (January 2010–June 2014) an...

    Authors: Mike J. Mwanga, Betty E. Owor, John B. Ochieng, Mwanajuma H. Ngama, Billy Ogwel, Clayton Onyango, Jane Juma, Regina Njeru, Elijah Gicheru, Grieven P. Otieno, Sammy Khagayi, Charles N. Agoti, Godfrey M. Bigogo, Richard Omore, O. Yaw Addo, Seheri Mapaseka…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:504

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Pregnant women are at high risk of influenza-related morbidity and mortality. In addition, maternal influenza infection may lead to adverse birth outcomes. However, there is insufficient data on long-term impa...

    Authors: Joon Young Song, Keon Vin Park, Sung Won Han, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Min-Jeong Oh and Geum Joon Cho

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:502

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as an emerging public health threat by the World Health Organization. As various measures have been taken successfully to combat the epidemi...

    Authors: Xiaoxi Zhou, Jianfeng Zhou and Jianping Zhao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:500

    Content type: Case report

    Published on: