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Viral diseases

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. The role of demographic factors, climatic conditions, school cycles, and connectivity patterns in shaping the spatio-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza is not clearly understood. Here we analyzed the spat...

    Authors: Gerardo Chowell, Sherry Towers, Cécile Viboud, Rodrigo Fuentes, Viviana Sotomayor, Lone Simonsen, Mark A Miller, Mauricio Lima, Claudia Villarroel, Monica Chiu, Jose E Villarroel and Andrea Olea

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:298

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Pneumonia remains a leading cause of child death in developing countries. The viruses in severe pneumonia remain poorly defined.

    Authors: Akira Suzuki, Socorro Lupisan, Yuki Furuse, Naoko Fuji, Mariko Saito, Raita Tamaki, Hazel Galang, Lydia Sombrero, Melisa Mondoy, Rapunzel Aniceto, Remigio Olveda and Hitoshi Oshitani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:267

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis (HD) are at higher risk for acquiring Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections than the general population. Strict infection control measures ...

    Authors: Wiam A Alashek, Christopher W McIntyre and Maarten W Taal

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:265

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) remains the gold standard for the detection of serologic immune responses to dengue virus (DENV). While the basic concept of the PRNT remains constant, this test...

    Authors: Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, Derek AT Cummings and Justin Lessler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:233

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The levels of proinflammatory cytokine or chemokine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid are thought to be one of predictors for clinical severity of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, yet the cellular sources or si...

    Authors: Xun Gong, Jianfang Zhou, Wenfei Zhu, Na Liu, Jinsong Li, Lili Li, Yu Jin and Zhaojun Duan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:224

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in China; perinatal transmission is the main source of chronic HBV infection. Simultaneous administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vacc...

    Authors: Yali Hu, Shu Zhang, Chao Luo, Qilan Liu and Yi-Hua Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:221

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Viral myocarditis is a major cause of sudden unexpected death in children and young adults. Until recently, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has been the most commonly implicated virus in myocarditis. At present, no s...

    Authors: Imed Gaaloul, Samira Riabi, Rafik Harrath, Mark Evans, Nidhal H Salem, Souheil Mlayeh, Sally Huber and Mahjoub Aouni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:212

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is ...

    Authors: Mei-Mei Kuan and Feng-Yee Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:182

    Content type: Research article

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  9. A national survey for chronic hepatitis C has not been performed in Denmark and the prevalence is unknown. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C from public registers and the proportion...

    Authors: Peer Brehm Christensen, Gordon Hay, Peter Jepsen, Lars Haukali Omland, Søren Andreas Just, Henrik Bygum Krarup, Nina Weis, Niels Obel and Susan Cowan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:178

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Coxsackievirus B3 is an important infectious agent of viral myocarditis, pancreatitis and aseptic meningitis, but there are no specific antiviral therapeutic reagents in clinical use. RNA interference-based te...

    Authors: Hailan Yao, Yangde Zhang, Feng He, Caihong Wang, Zonghui Xiao, Jizhen Zou, Fang Wang and Zhewei Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:177

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Increasing our understanding of the factors affecting the severity of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in different regions of the world could lead to improved clinical practice and mitigation strategies for...

    Authors: Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Mark A Miller, Santiago Echevarría-Zuno, Margot González-León and Víctor H Borja Aburto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:97

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community ...

    Authors: Liana Martirosyan, W John Paget, Pernille Jorgensen, Caroline S Brown, Tamara J Meerhoff, Dmitriy Pereyaslov and Joshua A Mott

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:36

    Content type: Research article

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  13. 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza posed an increased risk of severe illness among pregnant women. Data on risk factors associated with death of pregnant women and neonates with pH1N1 infections are limited ...

    Authors: Peng-jun Zhang, Xiao-li Li, Bin Cao, Shi-gui Yang, Li-rong Liang, Li Gu, Zhen Xu, Ke Hu, Hong-yuan Zhang, Xi-xin Yan, Wen-bao Huang, Wei Chen, Jing-xiao Zhang, Lan-juan Li and Chen Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:29

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Previous controlled studies on the effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) - namely the use of facemasks and intensified hand hygiene - in preventing household transmission of influenza have not produ...

    Authors: Thorsten Suess, Cornelius Remschmidt, Susanne B Schink, Brunhilde Schweiger, Andreas Nitsche, Kati Schroeder, Joerg Doellinger, Jeanette Milde, Walter Haas, Irina Koehler, Gérard Krause and Udo Buchholz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:26

    Content type: Research article

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  15. More than three billion populations are living under the threat of Japanese encephalitis in South East Asian (SEA) countries including India. The pathogenesis of this disease is not clearly understood and is p...

    Authors: Sujit Kumar Pujhari, Radha Kanta Ratho, Sudesh Prabhakar, Baijayantimala Mishra and Manish Modi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:23

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Influenza infections may result in different clinical presentations. This study aims to determine the clinical differences between circulating influenza strains in a young healthy adult population in the tropics.

    Authors: Jonathan Yap, Chi Hsien Tan, Alex R Cook, Jin Phang Loh, Paul A Tambyah, Boon Huan Tan and Vernon J Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:12

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Refugees are at risk for poor outcomes from acute respiratory infections (ARI) because of overcrowding, suboptimal living conditions, and malnutrition. We implemented surveillance for respiratory viruses in Da...

    Authors: Jamal A Ahmed, Mark A Katz, Eric Auko, M Kariuki Njenga, Michelle Weinberg, Bryan K Kapella, Heather Burke, Raymond Nyoka, Anthony Gichangi, Lilian W Waiboci, Abdirahman Mahamud, Mohamed Qassim, Babu Swai, Burton Wagacha, David Mutonga, Margaret Nguhi…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:7

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Immunocompromised patients, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sufferers have an increased risk of mortality, following influenza infection. In the recent pandemic, influenza A H1NI virus caused 18449 ...

    Authors: Konstantinos Tselios, Ritsa Tsioka, Alexandros Sarantopoulos, Eleni Mouloudi and Panagiota Boura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:358

    Content type: Case report

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  19. During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early di...

    Authors: Corien M Swaan, Rolf Appels, Mirjam EE Kretzschmar and Jim E van Steenbergen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:355

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigat...

    Authors: Xue Wang, Olga Zoueva, Jiangqin Zhao, Zhiping Ye and Indira Hewlett

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:354

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In temperate zones, all-cause mortality exhibits a marked seasonality, and one of the main causes of winter excess mortality is influenza. There is a tradition of using statistical models based on mortality fr...

    Authors: Jens Nielsen, Anne Mazick, Steffen Glismann and Kåre Mølbak

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:350

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In 2010, an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan and some patients presented with onychomadesis and desquamation following HFMD. Therefore, we performed an...

    Authors: Sung-Hsi Wei, Yuan-Pin Huang, Ming-Chih Liu, Tsung-Pei Tsou, Hui-Chen Lin, Tsuey-Li Lin, Chen-Yen Tsai, Yen-Nan Chao, Luan-Yin Chang and Chun-Ming Hsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:346

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positi...

    Authors: Wen-Kuan Liu, De-Hui Chen, Qian Liu, Huan-Xi Liang, Zi-Feng Yang, Sheng Qin and Rong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:345

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Environmental factors have been associated with transmission and survival of influenza viruses but no studies have ever explored the role of environmental factors on severity of influenza infection.

    Authors: Lin Yang, Ping Yan Chen, Jian Feng He, King Pan Chan, Chun Quan Ou, Ai Ping Deng, JS Malik Peiris and Chit Ming Wong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:342

    Content type: Research article

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  25. To provide a clear picture of the current hepatitis B situation, the authors performed a systematic review to estimate the age- and region-specific prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Turkey.

    Authors: Mehlika Toy, Fatih Oguz Önder, Tanja Wörmann, A Mithat Bozdayi, Solko W Schalm, Gerard J Borsboom, Joost van Rosmalen, Jan Hendrik Richardus and Cihan Yurdaydin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:337

    Content type: Research article

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  26. In order to compare the transmissibility of the 2009 pH1N1 pandemic during successive waves of infections in summer and fall/winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and to assess the temporal changes during the cou...

    Authors: Ying-Hen Hsieh, Kuang-Fu Cheng, Trong-Neng Wu, Tsai-Chung Li, Chiu-Ying Chen, Jin-Hua Chen and Mei-Hui Lin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:332

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Varicella is a common childhood disease. Only 5% of first varicella-zoster-virus infections occur asymptomatically. Most data on the burden of varicella stem from health service databases. This study aims to p...

    Authors: Judith H Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Anouk M Speets, Hans C Rümke, Pearl D Gumbs and Sander C Fortanier

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:320

    Content type: Research article

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  28. During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized child...

    Authors: Sophie Blumental, Elisabeth Huisman, Marie-Coralie Cornet, Christine Ferreiro, Iris De Schutter, Marijke Reynders, Ingrid Wybo, Benoît Kabamba-Mukadi, Ruth Armano, Dominique Hermans, Marie-Cécile Nassogne, Bhavna Mahadeb, Christine Fonteyne, Gerlant Van Berlaer, Jack Levy, Didier Moulin…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:313

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Data on the epidemiology and costs related to herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in Spain are scarce; therefore, studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of HZ an...

    Authors: Ana M Cebrián-Cuenca, Javier Díez-Domingo, María San-Martín-Rodríguez, Joan Puig-Barberá and Jorge Navarro-Pérez

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:302

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is commonly seen among hospitalized Nepali children. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) accounts for approximately one-quarter of cases. Although poor prognostic features for JE have ...

    Authors: Ajit Rayamajhi, Imran Ansari, Elizabeth Ledger, Krishna P Bista, Daniel E Impoinvil, Sam Nightingale, Rajendra Kumar BC, Chandeshwor Mahaseth, Tom Solomon and Michael J Griffiths

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:294

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission.

    Authors: Dmitry M Kissin, Michele G Mandel, Natalia Akatova, Nikolay A Belyakov, Aza G Rakhmanova, Evgeny E Voronin, Galina V Volkova, Alexey A Yakovlev, Denise J Jamieson, Charles Vitek, Joanna Robinson, William C Miller and Susan Hillis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:292

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In 2010, intense focus was brought to bear on febrile convulsions in Australian children particularly in relation to influenza vaccination. Febrile convulsions are relatively common in infants and can lead to ...

    Authors: Benjamin G Polkinghorne, David J Muscatello, C Raina MacIntyre, Glenda L Lawrence, Paul M Middleton and Siranda Torvaldsen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:291

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The role of Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus in central nervous system (CNS) infections is not fully resolved. It is clearly associated with lymphoproliferative disease of immunosuppressed persons, and may cause encep...

    Authors: Timi Martelius, Maija Lappalainen, Maarit Palomäki and Veli-Jukka Anttila

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:281

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes with clinical characteristics is increasingly recognized. However, the virologic and clinical features of HBV genotypes/subgenotypes in pediatr...

    Authors: Yan-Wei Zhong, Jin Li, Hong-Bin Song, Zhong-Ping Duan, Yi Dong, Xiao-Yan Xing, Xiao-Dong Li, Mei-Lei Gu, Yu-Kun Han, Shi-Shu Zhu and Hong-Fei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:262

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Localized reactive school and classroom closures were implemented as part of a suite of pandemic containment measures during the initial response to influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Melbourne, Australia. Infected in...

    Authors: Jodie McVernon, Kate Mason, Sylvia Petrony, Paula Nathan, Anthony D LaMontagne, Rebecca Bentley, James Fielding, David M Studdert and Anne Kavanagh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:257

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Data on complications in children with seasonal influenza virus infection are limited. We initiated a nation-wide three-year surveillance of children who were admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU...

    Authors: Andrea Streng, Veit Grote and Johannes G Liese

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:233

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Severe disease caused by 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1virus is characterized by the presence of hypercytokinemia. The origin of the exacerbated cytokine response is unclear. As observed previously, uncontroll...

    Authors: Raquel Almansa, Andres Anton, Paula Ramirez, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, David Banner, Tomás Pumarola, Luoling Xu, Jesús Blanco, Longsi Ran, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, Fernando Martin-Sanchez, Lorenzo Socias, Ana Loza, David Andaluz, Enrique Maravi, Mónica Gordón…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:232

    Content type: Research article

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  38. There was a pandemic influenza around the world in 2009 including South Korea since last pandemic occurred four decades ago. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this infect...

    Authors: Jung-Woo Rhim, Kyung-Yil Lee, You-Sook Youn, Jin-Han Kang and Ji-Chang Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:225

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) with herpes- or enterovirus can be self-limiting and benign, but occasionally result in severe and fatal disease. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revoluti...

    Authors: Birgitta Sundén, Marie Larsson, Tina Falkeborn, Jakob Paues, Urban Forsum, Magnus Lindh, Liselotte Ydrenius, Britt Åkerlind and Lena Serrander

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:220

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Our aim was to characterize clinical properties and laboratory parameters in patients with or without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings suggestive of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and especially t...

    Authors: Timo Hautala, Nina Hautala, Saara-Mari Mähönen, Tarja Sironen, Eija Pääkkö, Ari Karttunen, Pasi I Salmela, Olli Vainio, Seppo Rytky, Alexander Plyusnin, Antti Vaheri, Olli Vapalahti and Heikki Kauma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:217

    Content type: Research article

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  41. While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult a...

    Authors: Thomas Tolfvenstam, Anna Lindblom, Mark J Schreiber, Ling Ling, Angelia Chow, Eng Eong Ooi and Martin L Hibberd

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:209

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) has become an important measure in the diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection treatment. In the United States (U.S.) HCV GT 1 is reported as the most common infecting G...

    Authors: Paulo Telles Dias, Judith A Hahn, Eric Delwart, Brian R Edlin, Jeff Martin, Paula Lum, Jennifer Evans, Alex Kral, Steve Deeks, Michael P Busch and Kimberly Page

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:208

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Influenza virus is a major cause of respiratory disease worldwide and Streptococcus pneumoniae infection associated with influenza often leads to severe complications. Dendritic cells are key antigen presenting c...

    Authors: Yuet Wu, Huawei Mao, Man-To Ling, Kin-Hung Chow, Pak-Leung Ho, Wenwei Tu and Yu-Lung Lau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:201

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Complex mutants can be selected under sequential selective pressure by HBV therapy. To determine hepatitis B virus genomic evolution during antiviral therapy we characterized the HBV quasi-species in a patient...

    Authors: Lucila Cassino, Silvina Benetti, Fabian Fay, Hugo Tanno and Jorge Quarleri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:178

    Content type: Case report

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  45. The effect of peginterferon and ribavirin treatment on chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been established in several controlled clinical studies. However, the effectiveness of treatment and predict...

    Authors: Nanna Hansen, Niels Obel, Peer B Christensen, Mette Kjær, Alex L Laursen, Henrik B Krarup, Axel Møller, Poul Schlichting, Jens Bukh and Nina Weis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:177

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥ 50 years. Vaccines have been licensed or are under development that can protect against ...

    Authors: Bernhard Ultsch, Anette Siedler, Thorsten Rieck, Thomas Reinhold, Gérard Krause and Ole Wichmann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:173

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Recent studies strongly suggest that some respiratory viruses are associated with the induction of acute wheezing and/or exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, molecular epidemiology of these viruses is no...

    Authors: Asako Fujitsuka, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Mika Arakawa, Kazuko Goto-Sugai, Akihide Ryo, Yoshimichi Okayama, Katsumi Mizuta, Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masakazu Yoshizumi, Yoichi Kaburagi, Masahiro Noda, Masato Tashiro, Nobuhiko Okabe, Masaaki Mori, Shumpei Yokota and Hirokazu Kimura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:168

    Content type: Research article

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