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Table 5 Proportion of late entry into HIV care, as defined by the extended and stricter criteria, with adjusted risk ratios. Brazil (2003–2006)

From: Late entry into HIV care: lessons from Brazil, 2003 to 2006

Characteristic Extended Criterion Stricter Criterion
   Adjusted risk ratio 95% Confidence interval p Adjusted risk ratio 95% Confidence interval p
    Min Max    Min Max  
Geopolitical Region South 1 - - - 1 - - -
North 1.26 1.23 1.28 < 0.001 1.41 1.35 1.47 < 0.001
Northeast 1.10 1.08 1.11 < 0.001 1.30 1.26 1.34 < 0.001
Central-West 1.11 1.08 1.13 < 0.001 1.20 1.14 1.24 < 0.001
Southeast 1.00 0.98 1.01 0.498 1.11 1.08 1.13 < 0.001
Size of municipality (number of inhabitants) ≥ 500,000 1 - - - 1 - -  
100,000-499,999 1.01 1.00 1.02 0.194 1.07 1.05 1.09 < 0.001
< 100,000 1.02 1.01 1.04 0.005 1.10 1.07 1.13 < 0.001
HIV testing rate High 1 - - - 1 - - -
Medium 1.05 1.03 1.08 < 0.001 1.11 1.06 1.16 <0.001
Low 1.07 1.05 1.09 < 0.001 1.11 1.08 1.15 < 0.001
Sex Female 1 - - - 1 - - -
Male 1.20 1.19 1.21 < 0.001 1.40 1.37 1.42 < 0.001
Age 15-29 years 1 - - - 1 - - -
30-59 years 1.39 1.37 1.40 < 0.001 1.70 1.66 1.74 < 0.001
≥ 60 years 1.56 1.52 1.60 < 0.001 2.10 2.00 2.20 < 0.001
HIV Category of transmission§ Heterosexual women 1 - - - 1 - - -
  Injection drug user 1.07 1.05 1.09 < 0.001 1.15 1.09 1.21 < 0.001
  Heterosexual man 1.08 1.07 1.09 < 0.001 1.15 1.12 1.19 < 0.001
  Blood transfusion 1.11 1.03 1.19 0.004 0.96 0.73 1.27 0.793
  Homosexual/bisexual male 1.01 0.99 1.02 < 0.203 1.00 0.96 1.04 < 0.001
  1. High = > 10 tests/1,000 population; Medium = from 1.01 to 10 tests/1,000 population; Low = ≤ 1 test/1,000 population. §The categories of transmission were analyzed with a separate Poisson regression model, including the 37,391 individuals for whom information on transmission category was available. Control of confounding variables = region, HIV testing rate, and age. Population size was disregarded as a misleading variable as it did not show statistical significance in this regression model.