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  1. Early infant diagnosis of HIV infection is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas, leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Use of a point-of-care test would overcome many challeng...

    Authors: Catherine G. Sutcliffe, Jane Mutanga, Nkumbula Moyo, Abhishek K. Agarwal, Jessica L. Schue, Mutinta Hamahuwa, Kara M. Palamountain, Mark J. Fisher, Robert Elghanian, Philip E. Thuma and William J. Moss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Herpes zoster (HZ) infection of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients is of clinical concern. Vaccination could help restore immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV); however, temporal changes in ...

    Authors: June Young Chun, Kichun Kim, Min Kyeong Lee, Chang Kyung Kang, Youngil Koh, Dong-Yeop Shin, Junshik Hong, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Nam Joong Kim, Sung-Soo Yoon, Wan Beom Park, Inho Kim and Myoung-don Oh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:117

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The burden of cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still uncertain. Available studies used different designs and different criteria to define CV ...

    Authors: Filippo Pieralli, Vieri Vannucchi, Carlo Nozzoli, Giuseppe Augello, Francesco Dentali, Giulia De Marzi, Generoso Uomo, Filippo Risaliti, Laura Morbidoni, Antonino Mazzone, Claudio Santini, Daniela Tirotta, Francesco Corradi, Riccardo Gerloni, Paola Gnerre, Gualberto Gussoni…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

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  4. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Aline Wolfensberger, Lauren Clack, Stefanie von Felten, Katharina Kusejko, Mirjam Faes Hesse, Werner Jakob, Dirk Saleschus, Marie-Theres Meier, Roger Kouyos, Leonhard Held and Hugo Sax

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:115

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:603

  5. To investigate the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) administration to hypertension patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induce...

    Authors: Wenjun Wang, Xiaohui Zhao, Wei Wei, Weiwang Fan, Kai Gao, Shengxiu He and Xijing Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The plasma concentration of patients treated with efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg was found to exceed the upper limit of the proposed therapeutic window in most Chinese HIV-infected individuals; thus, dosage reduction ...

    Authors: Ling Xu, Wenxiu Peng, Xiaojing Song, Yanling Li, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Qiang Fu, Xiaoli Du, Wei Cao and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:112

    Content type: Research article

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  7. T cells play an important role in the prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and are involved in the seroconversion of a patient from HBsAb negative to positive. To compare the T-cell receptor β-chain...

    Authors: Dangsheng Xiao, Ju Wang, Zhitao Chen, Xiuyuan Jin, Yirui Xie, Dong Yan and Jiezuan Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:111

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Diarrhoea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five years old. In Kenya, it has a 21% case fatality with Enteropathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp.

    Authors: Ongwae H. Zachariah, Mwamburi A. Lizzy, Kakai Rose and Mutuku M. Angela

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human worldwide. The aim of study was to assess the distribution of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and capsular genoty...

    Authors: Mahnaz Sarhangi, Bita Bakhshi and Shahin Najar Peeraeyeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  10. G12 rotaviruses were first observed in sub-Saharan Africa in 2004 and since then have continued to emerge and spread across the continent and are reported as a significant human rotavirus genotype in several A...

    Authors: Kebareng G. Rakau, Martin M. Nyaga, Maemu P. Gededzha, Jason M. Mwenda, M. Jeffrey Mphahlele, L. Mapaseka Seheri and A. Duncan Steele

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:107

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Gene expression signatures have been used as biomarkers of tuberculosis (TB) risk and outcomes. Platforms are needed to simplify access to these signatures and determine their validity in the setting of comorb...

    Authors: W. Evan Johnson, Aubrey Odom, Chelsie Cintron, Mutharaj Muthaiah, Selby Knudsen, Noyal Joseph, Senbagavalli Babu, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, David F. Jenkins, Yue Zhao, Ethel Nankya, C. Robert Horsburgh, Gautam Roy, Jerrold Ellner, Sonali Sarkar, Padmini Salgame…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:106

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Better information on the typical course and management of acute common infections in the community could inform antibiotic stewardship campaigns. We aimed to investigate the incidence, management, and natural...

    Authors: Catherine M. Smith, Laura J. Shallcross, Peter Dutey-Magni, Anne Conolly, Christopher Fuller, Suzanne Hill, Arnoupe Jhass, Franziska Marcheselli, Susan Michie, Jennifer S. Mindell, Matthew J. Ridd, Georgios Tsakos, Andrew C. Hayward and Ellen B. Fragaszy

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:105

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Dengue virus (DENV) infection is increasingly common in southern China and can be transmitted through blood transfusion but is not currently part of donor screening throughout the region. We assessed DENV prev...

    Authors: Ling Li, Ying Li, Shaofang Lu, Jing Dong, Haixia Xu, Qian Zhang, Rong Weng, Yundi Yin, Rui He, Peng Fang, Hua Shi, Yinghan Yu, Ji Wu, Zhong Liu and John R. Hess

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Scalp Eschar and Neck LymphAdenopathy after Tick bite is a zoonotic non-pathogen-specific disease most commonly due to Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii. Diagnosis is mostly based only on epidemiological...

    Authors: Giulia Barlozzari, Federico Romiti, Maurizio Zini, Adele Magliano, Claudio De Liberato, Franco Corrias, Guglielmo Capponi, Luisa Galli, Manuela Scarpulla and Carlotta Montagnani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:103

    Content type: Case report

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  15. In non-uremic subjects, IFNL4 rs368234815 predicts HCV clearance. We investigated whether rs368234815 is associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in haemodialysis patients and whether it is a stronger predictor ...

    Authors: Alicja E. Grzegorzewska, Adrianna Mostowska, Monika K. Świderska, Wojciech Marcinkowski, Ireneusz Stolarek, Marek Figlerowicz and Paweł P. Jagodziński

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:102

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Echinococcosis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease and has been a major worldwide public health problem. Although it is known that health literacy is closely related to health behaviours and health outc...

    Authors: Jie Zhao, Yangzong Dawa, Kezhong A, Dejicuo, Lengbao, Zengyue Li, Wanli Chen, Jingya Wang, Yuxin Zhang, Dengbentai, Jiwei Wang, Lizheng Shi and Qingwu Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:101

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The increasing use of antifungal drugs (AF) in children and the concern for related adverse events and costs has led to the development of specific AF stewardship programmes (AFS). Studies in adult patients ha...

    Authors: Natalia Mendoza-Palomar, Beatriz Garcia-Palop, Susana Melendo, Maria Teresa Martín, Berta Renedo-Miró, Pere Soler-Palacin and Aurora Fernández-Polo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:100

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Treatment monitoring of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in resource-limited settings is challenging. We developed a multi-analyte assay for eleven anti-TB drugs in small hair samples as an objective metric...

    Authors: John Metcalfe, Peter Bacchetti, Ali Esmail, Andrew Reckers, David Aguilar, Anita Wen, Shu Huo, Winnie R. Muyindike, Judith A. Hahn, Keertan Dheda, Monica Gandhi and Roy Gerona

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:99

    Content type: Research article

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  19. New coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a severe threat to human life and caused a global pandemic. The current research aimed to explore whether the search-engine query patterns could serve as a pot...

    Authors: Bizhi Tu, Laifu Wei, Yaya Jia and Jun Qian

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:98

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Inappropriate antibiotic use is linked to the spread of antimicrobial resistance worldwide, but there are limited systemic data on antibiotic utilization in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of thi...

    Authors: Helen L. Zhang, Champica Bodinayake, Gaya B. Wijayaratne, Pasangi Jayatissa, D. L. Bhagya Piyasiri, Ruvini Kurukulasooriya, Tianchen Sheng, Ajith Nagahawatte, Christopher Woods and L. Gayani Tillekeratne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Dengue virus infection has been an important and serious public health concern in Taiwan, where local outbreaks of dengue fever occurred almost every year. To our knowledge, no nationwide investigation has bee...

    Authors: Ying-Hsuan Lee, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Chih-Jung Chen, Tzou-Yien Lin and Yhu-Chering Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:96

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Recommendations for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening vary significantly across countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of urogenital and extragenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT...

    Authors: A. Calas, N. Zemali, G. Camuset, J. Jaubert, R. Manaquin, C. Saint-Pastou, Y. Koumar, P. Poubeau, P. Gerardin and A. Bertolotti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Group A rotavirus (RVA), despite being a leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children, is less studied in Shanxi Province, China. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence a...

    Authors: Lifeng Zhao, Xiaohong Shi, Dequan Meng, Jiane Guo, Yiping Li, Lirong Liang, Xiaofang Guo, Ran Tao, Xiaohua Zhang, Ruihong Gao, Li Gao and Jitao Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:94

    Content type: Research article

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  24. HIV-transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is found in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve populations infected with HIV-1 with TDR mutations and is important for guiding future first- and second-line ART regimens. ...

    Authors: Yibo Ding, Min Chen, Jibao Wang, Yuecheng Yang, Yi Feng, Lijie Wang, Song Duan, Qianru Lin, Hui Xing, Yanling Ma, Mengjie Han and Liying Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:93

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Echocardiography (echo) is the primary imaging modality for infective endocarditis (IE). However, the recommendations on timing and mode selection for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic e...

    Authors: Peihan Xie, Xiaodong Zhuang, Menghui Liu, Shaozhao Zhang, Jia Liu, Donghong Liu and Xinxue Liao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Informed decision making is underlined by all tiers in the health system. Poor data record system coupled with under- (over)-reporting of malaria cases affects the country’s malaria elimination activities. Thu...

    Authors: Eshetu Molla, Sinknesh Wolde Behaksra, Fitsum G. Tadesse, Sisay Dugassa, Endalamaw Gadisa and Hassen Mamo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:91

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Ending the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic requires a focus on treating individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) to prevent future cases. Promising trials of shorter regimens have shown them to be effecti...

    Authors: J. Surey, H. R. Stagg, T. A. Yates, M. Lipman, P. J. White, A. Charlett, L. Muñoz, L. Gosce, M. X. Rangaka, M. Francis, V. Hack, H. Kunst and I. Abubakar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  28. There are limited data on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in solid organ transplant patients, especially in heart transplant recipients, with only a few case reports and case series described so far. Heart...

    Authors: Vincent Tchana-Sato, Arnaud Ancion, Julien Tridetti, Natzi Sakalihasan, Marie Pierre Hayette, Olivier Detry, Philippe Delvenne, Philippe Amabili, Marc Senard, Olivier Hougrand, Delphine Szecel, Jean-Paul Lavigne, Elie Minga Lowampa, Charlotte Ponte, Isabelle Maquoi, Philippe Morimont…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:89

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. The treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in Wuhan has been reported. However, the clinical characteristics of patients who died of COVID-19 in regions with relatively scarce...

    Authors: Jijia Hu, Yingang Zhang, Wei Wang, Zhihe Tao, Juan Tian, Ning Shao, Nian Liu, Hui Wei and Hao Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has collapsed health systems worldwide. In adults, the virus causes severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), while in children the dis...

    Authors: Mònica Girona-Alarcon, Sara Bobillo-Perez, Anna Sole-Ribalta, Lluisa Hernandez, Carmina Guitart, Ricardo Suarez, Mònica Balaguer, Francisco-Jose Cambra and Iolanda Jordan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  31. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Zeeba Zahra Sultana, Farhana Ul Hoque, Joseph Beyene, Md. Akhlak-Ul-Islam, Md Hasinur Rahman Khan, Shakil Ahmed, Delwer Hossain Hawlader and Ahmed Hossain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:86

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:51

  32. To determine the phenotype, molecular characterisation and risk factors of postoperative meningitis induced by Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in China.

    Authors: Guanghui Zheng, Yanfei Cao, Chunhong Liu, Lingye Qian, Yumeng Cai, Miaomiao Cui, Huiting Sun, Lv Hong, Jun Yuan, Lina Zhang and Guojun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:85

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Diabetes is a risk factor for infection with coronaviruses. This study describes the demographic, clinical data, and outcomes of critically ill patients with diabetes and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

    Authors: Jesna Jose, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Awad Al-Omari, Yasser Mandourah, Fahad Al-Hameed, Musharaf Sadat, Eman Al Qasim, Basem Alraddadi, Abdulrahman Al Harthy, Ghaleb A. Al Mekhlafi, Abdullah Almotairi, Kasim Al Khatib, Ahmed Abdulmomen, Ismael Qushmaq, Anees A. Sindi, Ahmed Mady…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major concern for blood safety in high-prevalence HBV countries such as China. In Shenzhen, dual hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (E...

    Authors: Xianlin Ye, Tong Li, Ran Li, Heng Liu, Junpeng Zhao and Jinfeng Zeng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:83

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Keratitis due to by filamentous fungi are not easy to diagnose thus causing a delay in correct therapy. There are many descriptions of keratitis due to Candida, Fusarium and Aspergillus genera. Subramaniula genus...

    Authors: Rosario Cultrera, Riccardo Torelli, Caterina Sarnicola, Daniela Segala, Andrea Mengoli, Giuseppina Chiaretto, Paolo Perri and Maurizio Sanguinetti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:82

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Raphael Awah Abong, Glory N. Amambo, Patrick W. Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Manuel Ritter, Amuam Andrew Beng, Mathias Eyong Esum, Kebede Deribe, Jerome Fru-Cho, Fanny F. Fombad, Theobald Mue Nji, Peter Ivo Enyong, Catherine B. Poole, Kenneth Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Clotilde K. S. Carlow…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:81

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:726

  37. Early identification of patients who are at high risk of poor clinical outcomes is of great importance in saving the lives of patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the context of limited m...

    Authors: Zhi-Yong Zeng, Shao-Dan Feng, Gong-Ping Chen and Jiang-Nan Wu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:80

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. The lack of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis and host immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection has limited the development of effective treatments. Thus, we longitudinally investigated the dynamic chang...

    Authors: Yangli Liu, Weiping Tan, Haihong Chen, Ying Zhu, Li Wan, Ke Jiang, Yubiao Guo, Kejing Tang, Canmao Xie, Hui Yi, Yukun Kuang and Yifeng Luo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. African-Americans/Blacks have suffered higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 than all other racial groups. This study aims to identify the causes of this health disparity, determine prognostic indicator...

    Authors: Raavi Gupta, Raag Agrawal, Zaheer Bukhari, Absia Jabbar, Donghai Wang, John Diks, Mohamed Alshal, Dokpe Yvonne Emechebe, F. Charles Brunicardi, Jason M. Lazar, Robert Chamberlain, Aaliya Burza and M. A. Haseeb

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:78

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Candidemia has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, with a mortality rate of 30–50%. It is the fourth most common nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) in the United States and the seventh most commo...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Asai, Wataru Ohashi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi and Hiroshige Mikamo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Invasive candidiasis is the most common fungal disease among hospitalized patients and continues to be a major cause of mortality. Risk factors for mortality have been studied previously but rarely developed i...

    Authors: Ding Li, Tianjiao Li, Changsen Bai, Qing Zhang, Zheng Li and Xichuan Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The high incidence, seasonal pattern and frequent outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) represent a threat for billions of children around the world. Detecting pre-outbreak signals of HFMD facilitat...

    Authors: Xuhang Zhang, Rong Xie, Zhengrong Liu, Yucong Pan, Rui Liu and Pei Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21(Suppl 1):6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  43. The elderly population in Hong Kong is rapidly growing, and the need for residential care homes (RCHs) is increasing. The risk of being infected with micro-organisms increases among the frail and the vulnerabl...

    Authors: Jessie Kit Ling Au, Lorna Kwai Ping Suen and Simon Ching Lam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Cancer patients are more likely to develop and die of bloodstream infection (BSI) than noncancer patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with immense mortality and econom...

    Authors: Zhouqi Li, Hemu Zhuang, Guannan Wang, Hui Wang and Ying Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. In pregnant women Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) can be transmitted to newborn causing severe infections. It is classified into 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, II-IX). The severity of neonatal disease is determined by the ...

    Authors: Fernando J. Bobadilla, Marina G. Novosak, Iliana J. Cortese, Osvaldo D. Delgado and Margarita E. Laczeski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Hydroxychloroquine has not been associated with improved survival among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the majority of observational studies and similarly was not identified as an effective prophylaxis foll...

    Authors: Andrew Ip, Jaeil Ahn, Yizhao Zhou, Andre H. Goy, Eric Hansen, Andrew L. Pecora, Brittany A. Sinclaire, Urszula Bednarz, Michael Marafelias, Ihor S. Sawczuk, Joseph P. Underwood III, David M. Walker, Rajiv Prasad, Robert L. Sweeney, Marie G. Ponce, Samuel La Capra…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Few follow-up studies have assessed antibody titers using serologic tests from various commercial laboratories and the Korea Cente...

    Authors: Choon-Mee Kim, Dong-Min Kim and Na Ra Yun

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus that was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. With the growi...

    Authors: Ran Jing, Rama Rao Vunnam, Elizabeth Schnaubelt, Chad Vokoun, Allison Cushman-Vokoun, David Goldner and Srinivas Rao Vunnam

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:68

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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