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  1. Infections caused by Enterococcus hirae are common in animals, with instances of transmission to humans being rare. Further, few cases have been reported in humans because of the difficulty in identifying the bac...

    Authors: Tomoaki Nakamura, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Matsuo, Fujimi Kawai, Yuki Uehara and Nobuyoshi Mori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:999

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Actinomyces odontolyticus is not commonly recognized as a causative microbe of liver abscess. The detection and identification of A. odontolyticus in laboratories and its recognition as a pathogen in clinical set...

    Authors: Shao-Lun Hsu, Chin-Ting Wu, Yuan-Chen Chang, Chia-Kwung Fan and Yuarn-Jang Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:998

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Nonrandom multiple respiratory virus (RV) detection provides evidence for viral interference among respiratory viruses. However, little is known as to whether it occurs randomly.

    Authors: Yu-Mi Lee, Tark Kim, Ki-Ho Park, Seong-Ho Choi, Yee Gyung Kwak, Eun Ju Choo, Jin-Won Chung and Mi Suk Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:997

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Meningitis retention syndrome (MRS) is a rare condition that presents with acute urinary retention as a complication of aseptic meningitis. Cases of MRS due to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection without a ...

    Authors: Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Ken Goda and Ayako Kumabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:996

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  5. Mycetoma is the most common neglected disease in humans. It is a chronic, progressive, and destructive disease primarily caused by fungi or bacteria characterized by formation of dark pale grains commonly invo...

    Authors: Ammar Awad, Adnan Alnaser, Hozifa Abd-elmaged, Reyad Abdallah and Hussam S. Khougali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:995

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) still represents a crucial concern in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and the use of antiviral therapy are limited by side effects and the selection of viral mutations co...

    Authors: Stefania Paolucci, Giulia Campanini, Irene Cassaniti, Alessandra Tebaldi, Federica Novazzi, Alice Fratini, Antonella Meini, Federica Girelli, Laura Palumbo, Alessandro Plebani and Fausto Baldanti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:994

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that is re-emerging in different parts of the world. This infection can be transmitted during pregnancy, causing neonatal syphilis. The objective of this study was ...

    Authors: Santa García-Cisneros, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Maria Olamendi-Portugal and Miguel Angel Sánchez-Alemán

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:992

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. There have been reports that long-term SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding and r...

    Authors: Xiaobin Zao, Yang Zhou, Yijun Liang, Xu Cao, Hening Chen, Xiaoke Li and Yong’an Ye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:991

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of prescribing antibiotics in family medicine. In Germany, about 40% of UTI-related prescriptions are second-line antibiotics, which contributes to emerging r...

    Authors: Ildikó Gágyor, Alexandra Greser, Peter Heuschmann, Viktoria Rücker, Andy Maun, Jutta Bleidorn, Christoph Heintze, Felix Jede, Tim Eckmanns, Anja Klingeberg, Anja Mentzel and Guido Schmiemann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:990

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  10. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most contagious infectious diseases worldwide. Currently, drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates are considered as one of the main challenges in the global TB con...

    Authors: Masoud Keikha and Mohsen Karbalaei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:989

    Content type: Research

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  11. Authors: Damien K. Ming, Ashleigh C. Myall, Bernard Hernandez, Andrea Y. Weiße, Robert L. Peach, Mauricio Barahona, Timothy M. Rawson and Alison H. Holmes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:988

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:932

  12. We conducted a distributed lag non-linear time series analysis to quantify the association between air pollution and scarlet fever in Qingdao city during 2014–2018.

    Authors: Fachun Jiang, Tao Wei, Xiaowen Hu, Yalin Han, Jing Jia, Bei Pan and Wei Ni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:987

    Content type: Research article

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  13. While southern Africa experiences among the highest mortality rates from respiratory infections, the burden of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in rural areas is poorly understood.

    Authors: Gideon Loevinsohn, Mutinta Hamahuwa, Pamela Sinywimaanzi, Katherine Z. J. Fenstermacher, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Andrew Pekosz, Mwaka Monze, Richard E. Rothman, Edgar Simulundu, Philip E. Thuma and Catherine G. Sutcliffe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:986

    Content type: Research

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  14. Endemic to the hospital environment, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading bacterial pathogen that causes deadly infections such as bacteremia and endocarditis. In past viral pandemics, it has been the p...

    Authors: Jenna R. Adalbert, Karan Varshney, Rachel Tobin and Rafael Pajaro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:985

    Content type: Research

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  15. Previous studies reported worsened lipid profiles in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sofosbuvir (S...

    Authors: Ying-Wen Wang, Wei-Ping Lee, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou and Keng-Hsin Lan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:984

    Content type: Research

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  16. The inappropriate use of antimicrobials for acute infectious diarrhea is widespread and leads to the problem of antimicrobial resistance. To improve the use of antimicrobials, it is first necessary to understa...

    Authors: Akane Ono, Kensuke Aoyagi, Yuichi Muraki, Yusuke Asai, Shinya Tsuzuki, Ryuji Koizumi, Toshiaki Azuma, Yoshiki Kusama and Norio Ohmagari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:983

    Content type: Research

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  17. Studies show men who have sex with men (MSM) practising receptive anal sex are more likely to present with secondary syphilis, suggesting anorectal primary lesions are being missed. Regular anal self-examinati...

    Authors: Ei T. Aung, Christopher K. Fairley, Jason J. Ong, Jade E. Bilardi, Marcus Y. Chen, Eric P. F. Chow and Tiffany R. Phillips

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:982

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The World Health Organization (WHO) has ranked dengue as one of the top ten threats to Global health in 2019. Sri Lanka faced a massive dengue epidemic in 2017, the largest outbreak in the country during the l...

    Authors: K. P. Jayawickreme, D. K. Jayaweera, S. Weerasinghe, D. Warapitiya and S. Subasinghe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:981

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Retention of pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants in HIV care still remains low in Uganda. Recent literature has shown that the effects of COVID-19 mitigation measures may increase disease burden...

    Authors: Sylivia Nalubega, Joshua Kyenkya, Irene Bagaya, Sylvia Nabukenya, Nelson Ssewankambo, Damalie Nakanjako and Agnes N. Kiragga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:980

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) using smear microscopy has been based on testing two specimens: one spot and one early morning sputa. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended to replace...

    Authors: Faridath Massou, Merlin Fandohan, Ablo Prudence Wachinou, Schadrac Christin Agbla, Gildas Agodokpessi, Leen Rigouts, Bouke Catherine de Jong and Dissou Affolabi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:979

    Content type: Research

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  21. Dengue fever is a common mosquito borne viral infection. Severe dengue fever associated severe hepatitis carries high mortality. Based on the beneficial effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in paracetamol poisonin...

    Authors: D. M. D. I. B. Dissanayake, W. M. S. N. Gunaratne, K. W. M. P. P. Kumarihamy, S. A. M. Kularatne and P. V. R. Kumarasiri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:978

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, from pancreatic infections to bloodstream infections, influence the mortality of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) on the condition of limited antib...

    Authors: Di Wu, Junjie Ding, Yan Jia, Huanmiao Liu, Jie Xiao and Jie Peng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:977

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. South Africa has not achieved the 90–90–90 goals, in part due to low rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among those aware of their HIV status. Perceived risk of HIV at the time of testing may aff...

    Authors: Sabina M. Govere, Sean Galagan, Boikhutso Tlou, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson, Ingrid V. Bassett and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:976

    Content type: Research

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  24. Shanghai, as a pilot city of China to achieve the goal of eliminating hepatitis C, its strategy of allocating medical resources is a pressing problem to be solved. This study aims to infer the time-spatial clu...

    Authors: Ling-Xiao Qu, Yang Shi, Kai-Yun Chen, Yi-Han Lu and Hong Ren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:974

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Limited data suggest that personal lubricants may damage the vaginal mucosal epithelium, alter the vaginal microbiota, and increase inflammation. We compared vaginal cytokine profiles and microbiota before and...

    Authors: Susan Tuddenham, Christina A. Stennett, Richard A. Cone, Jacques Ravel, Andrew N. Macintyre, Khalil G. Ghanem, Xin He and Rebecca M. Brotman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:973

    Content type: Research

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  26. Rates of adherence to available recommendations for dose adjustments in patients with severe obesity are generally low. Hence, antimicrobials are often underdosed in these patients. Antimicrobial stewardship p...

    Authors: Stéphanie Sirard, Vincent Nault, Marie-France Langlois, Julie Perron and Louis Valiquette

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:972

    Content type: Research

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  27. Few studies on pharyngotonsillitis have examined the clinical presentation of different aetiologies where pathogens have been detected using molecular methods. We aimed to assess how well clinical signs and sy...

    Authors: Jon Pallon, Mattias Rööst, Martin Sundqvist and Katarina Hedin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:971

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a major public health concern worldwide. Bedaquiline, a novel diarylquinoline, was added to the WHO-recommended all-oral regimen for patients with multidrug-resistan...

    Authors: Ming-Gui Wang, Shou-Quan Wu and Jian-Qing He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:970

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains a major challenge for worldwide health care systems and in particular emergency medicine. An early and safe triage in the emergency department (ED) is especially crucial f...

    Authors: David Fistera, Annalena Härtl, Dirk Pabst, Randi Manegold, Carola Holzner, Christian Taube, Sebastian Dolff, Benedikt Michael Schaarschmidt, Lale Umutlu, Clemens Kill and Joachim Risse

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:969

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by dimorphic fungi Coccidioides spp. endemic to Southwestern United States and Central and South America. A history of residence and travel in these areas is esse...

    Authors: Yuqiao Mao, Xia Li, Haibo Lou, Xiaoyu Shang, Yanjun Mai, Lan Yang, Fuhua Peng and Xihua Fu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:968

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  31. SARS-CoV-2 poses a considerable threat to those living in residential aged care facilities (RACF). RACF COVID-19 outbreaks have been characterised by the rapid spread of infection and high rates of severe dise...

    Authors: Amanda Brass, Andrew P. Shoubridge, Maria Crotty, Lidia Morawska, Scott C. Bell, Ming Qiao, Richard J. Woodman, Craig Whitehead, Maria C. Inacio, Caroline Miller, Megan Corlis, Nicolas Larby, Levi Elms, Sarah K. Sims, Steven L. Taylor, Erin Flynn…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:967

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  32. Legionella spp. are ubiquitous freshwater bacteria responsible for rare but potentially severe cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Legionella sainthelensi is a non-pneumophila Legionella species that was first i...

    Authors: Laure Kamus, Bénédicte Roquebert, Jérôme Allyn, Nicolas Allou, Dorothée Valance, Charles Simon, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee, Ghislaine Descours, Sophie Jarraud and Guillaume Miltgen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:966

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by more than one microorganisms is not uncommon and may be potentially challenging, but the relevant data is scarce in ventilated neonates. We aimed to investigate ...

    Authors: Hsiao-Chin Wang, Ming-Horng Tsai, Shih-Ming Chu, Chen-Chu Liao, Mei-Yin Lai, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu and Jen-Fu Hsu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:965

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Talaromyces marneffei (TM) primarily infects patients with co-morbidities that cause immunodeficiency, but non-secretory myeloma (NSMM) is rare. TSM and NSMM are associated with fever, osteolysis, and swollen lym...

    Authors: Haiting Qin, Ye Qiu, Yanmei Huang, Mianluan Pan, Dong Lan, Wen Zeng and Jianquan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:964

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  35. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection may induce central nervous system complications in HIV/AIDS patients. However, it is rare to have paraplegia caused by VZV infection but no herpes zoster clinically. Asym...

    Authors: Zhiman Xie, Jingzhen Lai, Chuanyi Ning, Guangjing Ruan and Hao Liang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:963

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. Authors: Yvette N. Löwensteyn, Natalie I. Mazur, Harish Nair, Joukje E. Willemsen, Ghislaine van Thiel and Louis Bont

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:962

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:857

  37. Authors: Yuya Ito, Takahiro Takazono, Satoru Koga, Yuichiro Nakano, Nobuyuki Ashizawa, Tatsuro Hirayama, Masato Tashiro, Tomomi Saijo, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Katsunori Yanagihara, Koichi Izumikawa and Hiroshi Mukae

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:961

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:573

  38. Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) is rarely identified as a cause of amebic pericarditis. We report a case of amebic pericarditis complicated by cardiac tamponade, in which the diagnosis was missed initiall...

    Authors: Takahiro Matsuo, Akira Saito, Fujimi Kawai, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Ryo Hasegawa, Takahiro Suzuki, Takahisa Fujino, Katsuhito Kinoshita, Taku Asano, Atsushi Mizuno, Kenji Yagita, Nobuyuki Komiyama, Yuki Uehara and Nobuyoshi Mori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:960

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. The dual infection with SARS-CoV-2 is poorly described and is currently under discussion. We present a study of two strains of SARS-CoV-2 detected in the same patient during the same disease presentation.

    Authors: Andrei E. Samoilov, Valeriia V. Kaptelova, Anna Y. Bukharina, Olga Y. Shipulina, Elena V. Korneenko, Stepan S. Saenko, Alexander V. Lukyanov, Antonina A. Grishaeva, Antonina A. Ploskireva, Anna S. Speranskaya and Vasiliy G. Akimkin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:959

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  40. Cases of immune complex vasculitis have been reported following COVID-19 infections; so far none in association with novel mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. This case report describes a cutaneous immune complex...

    Authors: Victoria Therese Mücke, Viola Knop, Marcus Maximilian Mücke, Falk Ochsendorf and Stefan Zeuzem

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:958

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. Gas gangrene is usually manifested as myonecrosis and subcutaneous gas accumulation, but rarely manifested as arterial occlusion or pneumatosis in the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

    Authors: Hui-Dan Jing, Lei Li, Jun-Ying Tian and Dong-Po Jiang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:957

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  42. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and became pandemic after emerging in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Several studies have been c...

    Authors: Saro Abdella, Masresha Tessema, Geremew Tasew, Atkure Defar, Asefa Deressa, Feyisa Regasa, Frehiwot Teka, Eyasu Tigabu, Dereje Nigussie, Tefera Belachew, Million Molla, Amare Deribew, Workeabeba Abebe, Tegbar Yigzaw, Tsinuel Nigatu, Getnet Mitike…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:956

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  43. Our goal is to further elucidate the clinical condition and prognosis of patients with severe acute COVID-19 with EBV reactivation.

    Authors: Yun Xie, Song Cao, Hui Dong, Hui Lv, Xiaolei Teng, Jiaxiang Zhang, Tao Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yun Qin, Yujing Chai, Luyu Yang, Jun Liu and Ruilan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:955

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. In Poland, little is known about the most serious cases of influenza that need admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU), as well as the use of extracorporeal respiratory support.

    Authors: Jakub Smiechowicz, Barbara Barteczko-Grajek, Barbara Adamik, Jozef Bojko, Waldemar Gozdzik and Malgorzata Lipinska-Gediga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:954

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Leishmaniases are regularly seen in non-endemic areas due to the increase of international travels. They include cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) and mucocutaneous (MC) caused by different Leishmania species, and vis...

    Authors: Nesrine Aissaoui, Samia Hamane, Maud Gits-Muselli, Antoine Petit, Mazouz Benderdouche, Blandine Denis, Alexandre Alanio, Sarah Dellière, Martine Bagot and Stéphane Bretagne

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:953

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Robust evidenced treatment strategy for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been established yet. Early, targeted, comprehensive management approach can be essential.

    Authors: Jongkyu Kim, Jiwoong Jung, Tae Ho Kim, Naree Kang, Hanzo Choi, Dong Hyun Oh, Mi Young Ahn, Su hyun Kim, Chorom Hahm, Young Kyong Lee, Keunhong Park, Kiho Hong and Jae-phil Choi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:952

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), also known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, is an idiopathic systemic disease typically affecting the lungs, although other organs may also be involved.

    Authors: Zohreh Rostami, Luca Cegolon, Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari, Nasrin Gholami, Seyed Vahid Mousavi, Fakhri Allahyari, Atena Azami and Mohammad Javanbakht

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:948

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  48. The microbiological diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb) in a pediatric population is hampered by both low pathogen burden and noncompliance with sputum sampling. Although endobronchial ultrasound-guided t...

    Authors: Anne Geweniger, Ales Janda, Kristin Eder, Roland Fressle, Cecil Varna Kannan, Hubert Fahnenstich, Mirjam Elze, Christoph Müller, Philipp Henneke, Markus Hufnagel and Roland Elling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:946

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.