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Table 2 Factors associated with undetectable HIV-RNA level (≤400 copies/mL), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1997-2011

From: Improved virologic outcomes over time for HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in a cohort from Rio de Janeiro, 1997–2011

  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value
Year 1.2 (1.17 - 1.22) <0.001 1.18 (1.16 - 1.21) <0.001
Ethnicity     
White 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
Non-white 0.98 (0.86 - 1.1) 0.70 0.97 (0.84 - 1.11) 0.62
Risk group     
Heterosexual man 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
Heterosexual woman 0.83 (0.7 - 0.98) 0.03 0.93 (0.78 - 1.12) 0.46
MSM 1.02 (0.86 - 1.2) 0.85 1.05 (0.87 - 1.27) 0.61
IDU 0.48 (0.31 - 0.75) <0.01 0.88 (0.5 - 1.56) 0.66
Unknown 0.99 (0.8 - 1.27) 0.91 1.08 (0.86 - 1.37) 0.50
Other 0.46 (0.28 - 0.75) <0.001 0.78 (0.46 - 1.3) 0.34
Education (years)     
≤8 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
>8 1.66 (1.46 - 1.88) <0.001 1.69 (1.47 - 1.95) <0.001
Age* (years)     
<30 1,00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
30-39 1.14 (0.94 - 1.37) 0.19 1.22 (0.98 - 1.5) 0.07
40-49 1.55 (1.27 - 1.88) <0.001 1.68 (1.34 - 2.11) <0.001
≥50 1.98 (1.57 - 2.49) <0.001 2.11 (1.61 - 2.77) <0.001
Years since HIV diagnosis* 0.98 (0.97 - 1) 0.01 0.92 (0.91 - 0.94) <0.001
Pre-treatment CD4+     
≤200 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
201-350 1.01 (0.87 - 1.18) 0.87 0.97 (0.82 - 1.14) 0.73
351-500 1.19 (0.95 - 1.5) 0.12 1.3 (1.02 - 1.64) 0.03
>500 0.64 (0.49 - 0.83) <0.001 0.93 (0.7 - 1.24) 0.62
Missing 0.75 (0.62 - 0.89) <0.001 0.84 (0.69 - 1.02) 0.08
Initial regimen     
NRTI + NNRTI 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
NRTI + PI 0.56 (0.5 - 0.64) <0.001 0.72 (0.63 - 0.83) <0.001
ART interruption*     
≤1 month 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
>1 month 0.29 (0.25 - 0.37) <0.001 0.32 (0.27 - 0.38) <0.001
Hep C coinfection* 1.01 (0.8 - 1.27) 0.95 1.09 (0.84 - 1.42) 0.50
  1. Results from unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression generalized estimating equations models. A total of 1,492 missing midyear viral load outcomes were excluded from the analysis. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; MSM, men who have sex with men; IDU, injecting drug user; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI, protease inhibitor; Hep, Hepatitis. *Time-updated variables. Bold text indicates p-value < 0.05.