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Table 4 Risk factors of biliary candidiasis

From: Risk factors and outcome in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with persistent biliary candidiasis

Risk factor Univariate Multivariate
  HR HR (95% CI) p-value HR HR (95% CI) p-value
Sex 1.8 0.8-4.0 0.2 1.5 0.5-4.1 0.5
Presence of dominant stenosis 0.3 0.1-1.0 0.05 0.6 0.1-2.6 0.4
Presence of IBD 1.1 0.5-2.4 0.9 0.7 0.3-2.1 0.5
Overlap with autoimmune hepatitis 1.0 0.2-4.1 0.9 0.6 0.1-6.8 0.7
Age at PSC diagnosis 1.0 1.0-1.1 0.021 1.0 1.0-1.1 0.019
Number of ERCs 1.2 1.1-1.4 0.002 1.2 1.0-1.4 0.025
Mayo Risk Score 0.9 0.7-1.3 0.7 0.9 0.6-1.3 0.6
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; ERC, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; PSC, primary sclerosing cholangitis; AIHOLS, autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome; DS, dominant stenosis.
  2. The data show prospective factors predicting the development of biliary candidiasis. In the univariate analysis, the presence of dominant stenosis, number of ERCs, and age at diagnosis of PSC were associated with biliary candidiasis. In the multivariate analysis, only the number of ERCs and age at diagnosis of PSC reached significance (p < 0.05, bold).