Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with incident HCV infection in HIV-positive people (n = 2079)

From: Hepatitis C testing and re-testing among people attending sexual health services in Australia, and hepatitis C incidence among people with human immunodeficiency virus: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data

  Incident infections Person years Rate per 100 person years (95% CI) Univariate IRR (95% CI) p Multivariate IRR (95% CI) p
Age
 Every additional 5 years 157 6279.7 2.5 (2.1–2.9) 0.8 (0.8–0.9) <0.01 0.9 (0.8–0.9) <0.01
Sex
 Male 141 5772.2 2.4 (2.1–2.9) 1.0    
 Female 16 507.5 3.2 (1.9–5.1) 1.3 (0.8–2.2) 0.33   
Country of birth
 Australia 99 4316.1 2.3 (1.9–2.8) 1.0    
 Other 58 1963.6 3.0 (2.3–3.8) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 0.13   
Place of residence
 Major city 132 3795.0 3.5 (2.9–4.1) 1.0   1.0  
 Regional/remote 25 2414.6 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 0.3 (0.2–0.5) <0.01 0.3 (0.2–0.5) <0.01
 Unknown 0 70.1   
Sexual orientation
 MSM 115 4950.0 2.3 (1.9–2.8) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.15 0.5 (0.4–0.8) 0.01
 Heterosexual male 26 820.5 3.2 (2.2–4.7) 1.0   1.0  
 Unknown 16 509.1 3.1 (1.9–5.1)   
Ever performed sex work
 No 151 6086.7 2.5 (2.1–2.9) 1.0    
 Yes 6 192.9 3.1 (1.4–6.9) 1.3 (0.6–2.8) 0.59   
Ever injected drugs
 No 111 5249.1 2.1 (1.8–2.5) 1.0   1.0  
 Yes 46 795.6 5.8 (4.3–7.7) 2.7 (1.9–3.9) <0.01 2.5 (1.8–3.5) <0.01
 Unknown 0 234.9   
Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander
 No 146 5992.9 2.4 (2.1–2.9) 1.0   1.0  
 Yes 11 286.8 3.8 (2.1–6.9) 1.6 (0.9–2.9) 0.15 2.0 (1.1–3.7) 0.03
Current CD4 cell count (cells/mm3)
  ≥ 500 34 1648.2 2.1 (1.5–2.9) 1.0    
  < 500 17 1116.1 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 0.31   
 Unknown 106 3515.4 3.0 (2.5–3.6)    
Current HIV RNA
 Undetectable 63 2647.6 2.4 (1.9–3.0) 1.0    
 Detectable 21 869.0 2.4 (1.6–3.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.95   
 Unknown 73 2763.1 2.6 (2.1–3.3)    
Current ART use
 Yes 74 3008.6 2.5 (2.0–3.1) 1.0    
 No 10 508.0 2.0 (1.1–3.7) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.51   
 Unknown 73 2763.1 2.6 (2.1–3.3)    
Current time period
 2007–09 8 1027.6 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 1.0   1.0  
 2010–11 21 1385.5 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 1.8 (0.8–4.1) 0.15 1.7 (0.8–3.9) 0.19
 2012–13 77 1960.5 3.9 (3.1–4.9) 4.5 (2.2–9.4) <0.01 4.1 (2.0–8.5) <0.01
 2014–15 51 1906.0 2.7 (2.0–3.5) 2.6 (1.2–5.4) 0.01 2.2 (1.1–4.7) 0.04
  1. Missing categories were included in models but coefficients are not shown. HCV, hepatitis C virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; CI, confidence interval; IRR, incidence rate ratio; MSM, men who have sex with men; ART, antiretroviral therapy