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Table 2 Published cases of NTM infection complicated with HPS

From: Nontuberculous Mycobacterium infection complicated with Haemophagocytic syndrome: a case report and literature review

  Author Country Year Sex/Age Symptoms Cause of NTM infection Method Infection location Underlying disease Treatment Prognosis BM pathology showing granuloma
1 D. Har/USA, 2017 [12] M/58 Fever, night sweats, wt loss M. kansasii Spleen biopsy culture Isolated spleen lesion Sweet’s syndrome, adalimub (2 years) Dexamethasone, etoposide, RIPE Death Not mentioned
2 Chou/PRC, 2010 [13] F/60 Fever, postprandial nausea, vomiting M. kansasii BM culture, liver biopsy culture Disseminated Femoral sarcoma (5 months later) Methylprednisolone, IVIG, RIPE, azithromycin Recovery Yes
3 Thomas/France 2014 [14] M/65 Fever, wt loss, diarrhoea M. lentiflavum Blood culture, faecal culture, BALF, liver autopsy Disseminated Heart transplantation, tacrolimus+MMF Prednisone, CsA, MMF; rifabutin, ethambutol, clarithromycin, amikacin Death Yes
4 Ordaya/USA, 2017 [15] F/26 Fever, fatigue, sore throat M. avium complex Blood culture Disseminated ALL in remission Dexamethasone, etoposide, rifabutin, ethambutol, clarithromycin Recovery (stop transplantation) Yes
5 Hilmers/USA, 2013 [16] M/40 Fever M. avium complex Blood culture, BALF, BM culture Disseminated AIDS, HAART (3 weeks, histoplasmosis) Azithromycin, ethambutol, rifabutin, antifungal, HAART Recovery Not mentioned
6 Chamsi-Pasha/USA, 2013 [17] F/22 Fever, night sweats, wt loss M. avium complex Lung biopsy culture, blood culture, BM culture Disseminated Sickle cell anaemia Azithromycin, ethambutol, rifampin, methylprednisolone, anakinra Death Yes
7 Yang/PRC, 2003 [18] F/15 Fever, lethargy M. avium complex Gastric lavage Disseminated SLE (prednisone +HCQ) IVIG, etoposide; clarithromycin, ciproflaxcin, amikacin Recovery Yes
8 Lapierre/France, 2017 [19] M/55 Fever, wt loss M. iranicum (multidrug-resistant) Blood culture Disseminated Hodgkin’s disease (at the same time) Corticosteroid, BEACOPP Recovery Not mentioned
9 M.I/Japan, 2018 [20] M/14 Fever, wt loss M. kansasii Blood culture, BM culture Disseminated MDS (3 years), GATA2 heterozygous mutation Prednisone, etoposide, CsA, RIPE, transplant Recovery No
10 Katagiri/Japan, 2014 [21] M/58 Fever, rash M. abscessus Blood culture, skin Disseminated CLL (prednisone +CTX) Imipenem, amikacin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, IVIG Recovery No
11 Our case F/21 Fever, night sweats, fatigue M. intracellulare Blood culture, lymph node Disseminated No Clarithromycin, rifampicin, ethambutol, amikacin, prednisone Recovery No
  1. BM: Bone marrow; wt: weight; R: rifampin; I: isoniazid; P: pyramide, E: ethambutol; IVIG: intravenous immunoglobin; BALF: bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; MMF: mycophenolate; CsA: cyclosporin A; HAART: highly active antiretroviral therapy; BEACOPP: bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, oncovorin, procarbazine and prednisone; MDS: myelodysplastic syndromes; GATA2: GATA-binding factor 2 gene; CLL: chronic lymphocytic leukaemia