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Table 2 Risk factors of development TB within 1 year of TB screening among 1064 HIV infected, TB screening negative adults at the Mae Chang day care center

From: Predicting the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis based on the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at TB screening in HIV-infected individuals

VariablesCategoryTB screening negative for TBNew TB casesHazard Ratio (95% CI)Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)p-value
N = 1064N = 60
NL ratioper unit1.66 (1.14–2.54)2.63 (1.68–4.53)1.13 (1.08–1.18)1.06 (1.00–1.13)0.069
Age (years)Under 3021714 (6.5%)1.02 (0.54–1.93)1.30 (0.68–2.48)0.391
30–3948230 (6.2%)referencereference
Over 4036516 (4.4%)0.68 (0.37–1.25)0.77 (0.41–1.45)
SexMale47337 (7.8%)2.06 (1.22–3.46)1.76 (1.02–3.05)0.039
Female58723 (3.9%)referencereference
Missing data40 
EthnicityThai74840 (5.4%)referencereference0.281
Hill tribe19815 (7.6%)1.36 (0.75–2.46)1.29 (0.69–2.42)
Others1185 (4.2%)0.80 (0.32–2.04)0.59 (0.22–1.54)
Year of DCC registration2002–200646728 (6.0%)referencereference0.259
2007–201147727 (5.7%)0.87 (0.51–1.47)0.78 (0.44–1.39)
2012–20151205 (4.2%)0.64 (0.25–1.65)0.45 (0.16–1.25)
CD4 counts (cells/mm3)< 5024225 (10.3%)7.53 (3.61–15.71)4.20 (1.75–10.08)< 0.001
50–19926925 (9.3%)5.78 (2.77–12.03)4.36 (2.00–9.50)
20055310 (1.8%)referencereference
ARTNo59240 (6.8%)referencereference0.357
Past/Current33012 (3.6%)0.49 (0.25–0.92)0.71 (0.35–1.44)
Start during follow-up1237 (5.7%)0.83 (0.38–1.86)0.51 (0.21–1.20)
Missing data191 (5.3%)0.69 (0.09–5.01)1.53 (0.20–11.78)
TST (Positive: > 5 mm)Negative94551(5.4%)referencereference0.019
Positive798 (10.1%)1.88 (0.89–3.96)3.52 (1.58–7.84)
Not tested401 (2.5%)0.54 (0.07–3.88)0.55 (0.08–4.05)
Abnormal X rayNo80842 (5.2%)referencereference0.800
Yes25018 (7.2%)1.47 (0.85–2.56)1.08 (0.61–1.90)
No tested60
TB symptomsbNo68017 (2.5%)referencereference< 0.001
At least one symptom38443 (11.2%)5.19 (2.96–9.11)3.14 (1.70–5.79)
  1. TB Tuberculosis, CI Confidence interval, NL Neutrophil to lymphocyte, DCC Day care center, ART Anti-retroviral treatment, TST Tuberculin skin test
  2. aTB symptoms include cough, night sweats, fever, weight loss, and hemoptysis within 4 weeks
  3. p-values were calculated using likelihood ratio test