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Table 4 Risk-based recommendations for biocontainment and associated mitigation strategies for low- and high-risk laboratory activities

From: Biosafety and biosecurity requirements for Orientia spp. diagnosis and research: recommendations for risk-based biocontainment, work practices and the case for reclassification to risk group 2

Mitigation strategyLowa to Mediumb-risk laboratory activitiesHigh-risk laboratory activities c
Personnel protectionGown
Gloves
Eye protection
Covered shoes
Avoidance of sharps
Respiratory protection
Gown
Gloves
Eye protection
Covered shoes
Avoidance of sharps
Primary containmentClass II BSC (annually certified)
Aerosol generating procedures (i.e., centrifugation) devices with bioseal (gaskets buckets and corresponding lids (screw or clip type).
Buckets may only be opened in the BSC
Class II BSC (annually certified)
Aerosol generating procedures (i.e., centrifugation) devices with bioseal (gaskets buckets and corresponding lids (screw or clip type). Buckets may only be opened in the BSC
Secondary biocontainmentBiosafety Level 2 or CoreBiosafety Level 3 or Heightened Control Measures
Disinfection (any of the following options)Autoclave – 121 °C for 30 min
Dry heat - 160-170 °C for at least 60 min
Chemical (at least 30 min contact time)
 1% Virkon (surfaces) or 2% Virkon (liquids)
 1% sodium hypochlorite
 70% ethanol
 Glutaraldehyde
 Formaldehyde
 Quaternary ammonium disinfectants
Autoclave – 121 °C for 30 min
Dry heat - 160-170 °C for at least 60 min
Chemical (at least 30 min contact time)
 1% Virkon (surfaces) or 2% Virkon (liquids)
 1% sodium hypochlorite
 70% ethanol
 Glutaraldehyde
 Formaldehyde
 Quaternary ammonium disinfectants
TrainingStaff need to be trained and demonstrate proficiency in GMPPStaff need to be trained and demonstrate proficiency in GMPP
  1. BSC biological safety cabinet, GMPP good microbiological practises and procedures
  2. aLow-risk – ≤100 ml (in a single or multiple culture vessels) at a concentration of ≤106 cfu/ml Orientia spp. organisms
  3. bMedium-risk - ≤500 ml (in a single or multiple culture vessels) at a concentration of ≤106 cfu/ml Orientia spp. organisms
  4. cHigh-risk - > 500 ml (in a single or multiple culture vessels) at a concentration of > 106 cfu/ml Orientia spp. organisms