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Table 2 Sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, socio-structural factors, and uptake of HIV prevention services among MSM and Transgender women in Terai highway districts

From: Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and assessment of the social and structural determinants of sexual risk behaviour and health service utilisation among MSM and transgender women in Terai highway districts of Nepal: findings based on an integrated biological and behavioural surveillance survey using respondent driven sampling

  MSM, n = 167, n (%) Transgender women, n = 173, n (%) Total, n = 340, n (%)
Unweighted Weighted %a Unweighted Weighted %a Unweighted Weighted %a
Sexual risk behavior
 Condom use at last sexual intercourse
  No 69 (41.3) 38.8 76 (43.9) 58.2 145 (42.6) 46.4
  Yes 96 (57.5) 61.2 96 (55.5) 41.8 192 (56.5) 53.6
  No response 2 (1.2)   1 (0.6)   3 (0.9)  
 Last sexual partner
  Non-paying male partner 80 (47.9) 47.9 87 (50.3) 54.1 167 (49.1) 50.3
  Non-paying female partner 20 (12.0) 20.3 12 (6.9) 7.7 32 (9.4) 15.3
  Male client 46 (27.5) 16.4 61 (35.3) 31.8 107 (31.5) 22.5
  Female client 7 (4.2) 8.3 2 (1.2) 1.2 9 (2.6) 5.5
  Paid male sex worker 4 (2.4) 1.9 9 (5.2) 3.4 13 (3.8) 2.5
  Paid female sex worker 6 (3.6) 4.7 1 (0.6) 1.2 7 (2.1) 3.3
  No response 4 (2.4) 0.5 1 (0.6) 0.5 5 (1.5) 0.5
Knowledge level of HIV
 Low knowledge 30 (18.0) 19.3 31 (17.9) 23.7 61 (17.9) 21.0
 High knowledge 137 (82.0) 80.7 142 (82.1) 76.3 279 (82.1) 79.0
Socio-structural factors
 Forced by family to marry female
  No 112 (67.1) 75.4 98 (56.6) 63.1 210 (61.8) 70.6
  Yes 55 (32.9) 24.6 73 (42.2 36.9 128 (37.6) 29.4
  No Response    2 (1.2)   2 (0.6)  
 Forced to leave home due to sexual behavior
  No 148 (88.6) 91.0 142 (82.1) 87.5 290 (85.3) 89.4
  Yes 19 (11.4) 9.0 31 (17.9) 12.5 50 (14.7) 10.6
 Openness to family about sexual behavior
  No 142 (85.0) 93.7 115 (66.5) 22.6 257 (75.6) 87.3
  Yes 25 (15.0) 6.3 58 (33.5) 77.4 83 (24.4) 12.7
 Beaten due to sexual behavior past year
  No 157 (94.0) 95.7 153 (88.4) 94.9 310 (91.2) 95.4
  Yes 10 (6.0) 4.3 20 (11.6) 5.1 30 (8.8) 4.6
 Forced to have sex past year
  No 144 (86.2) 93.1 141 (81.5) 82.7 285 (83.8) 89.0
  Yes 23 (13.8) 6.9 32 (18.5) 17.3 55 (16.2) 11.0
 Cheated/threatened due to sexual behavior in past year
  No 139 (83.2) 93.9 125 (72.3) 78.9 264 (77.6) 88.0
  Yes 28 (16.8) 6.1 47 (27.2) 21.1 75 (22.1) 12.0
 Don’t Remember/Know    1 (0.6)   1 (0.3)  
 Discrimination level
  No discrimination 99 (59.3) 72.3 81 (46.8) 49.0 180 (52.9) 63.9
  In one or more situations 68 (40.7) 27.7 92 (53.2) 51.0 160 (47.1) 36.1
 Reaction when treated unfairly
  Accept it/keep to self 62 (37.1) 35.5 55 (31.8) 34.8 117 (34.4) 35.2
  Do something/keep to self 40 (24) 26.6 60 (34.7) 30.0 100 (29.4) 28.0
  Do something/talk to others 65 (38.9) 37.9 58 (33.5) 35.2 123(36.2) 36.8
 Away from home last month
  No 120 (71.9) 69.6 113 (65.3) 71.1 233 (68.5) 70.3
  Yes 47 (28.1) 30.4 60 (34.7) 28.9 107 (31.5) 29.7
 Cross border travel for sexual activities
  No 136 (81.4) 88.9 138 (79.8) 79.7 274 (80.6) 85.3
  Yes 30 (18) 11.1 35 (20.2) 20.3 65 (19.1) 14.7
  No response 1 (0.6)     1 (0.3)  
 Interacted with PE, OE or CM or CE last 12 months
  No 75 (44.9) 40.4 58 (33.5) 45.4 133 (39.1) 45.9
  Yes 92 (55.1) 59.6 113 (65.3) 54.6 205 (60.3) 54.1
  No response    2 (1.2)   2 (0.6)  
 Visited outreach center in the last 12 months
  No 95 (56.9) 75.1 54 (31.2) 45.8 149 (43.8) 63.6
  Yes 72 (43.1) 24.9 119 (68.8) 54.2 191 (56.2) 36.4
 Visited STI clinic in the last 12 months
  No 146 (87.4) 92.6 143 (82.7) 86.6 289 (85.0) 90.3
  Yes 21 (12.6) 7.4 30 (17.3) 13.4 51 (15.0) 9.7
 Visited HTC center in the last 12 months
  No 128 (76.6) 87.4 128 (74.0) 78.5 256 (75.3) 83.9
  Yes 39 (23.4) 12.6 45 (26.0) 21.5 84 (24.7) 16.1
  1. aWeighted value based on RDS II Estimator